Skip to main content

Full text of "Des Plaines River long-term monitoring program : phase I report"

See other formats



ILLINOIS -^'^^it:". 

NATURAL HISTORY 

SURVEY 



C^es Plaines River Long-Term 
(^Monitoring Program: Phase 1 



Aquatic Biology Section 

Technical Report 



Richard E. Sparks 
Co-Principal Investigator 

and 

Pamela P. Tazik 
Co-Principal Investigator 



Final Report 
Submitted to 

Commonwealth Edison Co. 
Chicago, Illinois 



Aquatic Biology Technical Report 1986(6) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



http://www.archive.org/details/desplainesriverlOOspar 



ILLINOIS 
NATURAL HISTORY- 
SURVEY 



Des Plaines River Long-Term 
Monitoring Program: Phase 1 



Aquatic Biology Section 

Technical Report 



Richard E. Sparks 
Co-Principal Investigator 

and 

Pamela P. Tazik 
Co-Principal Investigator 



Final Report 
Submitted to 

Commonwealth Edison Co., 
Chicago, Illinois 

Aquatic Biology Technical Report 1986(6) 




AB Tech Report 1986 (6) 



DES PLAINES RIVER LONG-TERM MONITORING PROGRAM 



PHASE I REPORT 



Richard E. Sparks (Co-PI) 
Pamela P. Tazik (Co-PI) 
K. Douglas Blodgett 
Gary L.Warren 
Mark J. Wetzel 



Illinois Natural History Survey 



FINAL REPORT 



12 December 19 8 6 



A-'"cA/^.(.-.(: i~,,5e^yd^- ^^U^-/ ^. 



^ 



Richard E. Sparks / Robert W. Gorden, Head 

Co-Principal Investigator Illinois Natural History Survey 



Pamela P. Tazik 
Co-Principal Investigator 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

SECTION 1: VEGETATION ANALYSES AND HABITAT CHARACTERIZATION ... 2 

INTRODUCTION 2 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 3 

RESULTS 5 

Macrophyte Taxa 5 

Transect Analysis 5 

Aquatic Vegetation in the Des Plaines River 5 

Vegetation Analyses by River Segment 6 

Segment 1. River mile 284.5-286 

(Brandon Road Lock and Dam) 6 

Segment 2. River mile 282-284.5 6 

Segment 3 . River mile 280-282 6 

Segment 4. River mile 278.2-280 

(Treats Island area) 6 

Segment 5. River mile 276.5-278.2 

(Mouth of the Du Page River) 7 

Segment 6. River mile 275-276.5 

(Will County Forest Preserve Island) . 7 
Segment 7. River mile 273.5-275 

(Grant Creek) 7 

Segment 8. River mile 273-273.5 

(Confluence) 7 

Macrophyte Standing Crop 8 

Classification 8 

DISCUSSION 10 

SUMMARY 13 

RECOMMENDATIONS 14 

SECTION 2 : MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES 15 

INTRODUCTION 15 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 16 

Sampling Sites 16 

Sampling Gear 16 

Preservation and Lab Methods 16 

Taxonomic Procedures 17 

Data Analysis and Statistics 17 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 19 

Sampling Methodologies 19 

Habitat Specificity 19 

Dominant Taxa: Midges (Chironomidae) 20 

Dominant Taxa: Worms (Annelida) 2 

Faunal Comparison of the Des Plaines 

and Kankakee Rivers 2 3 



winter Resurvey 2 3 

Species Diversity 24 

Endangered and Threatened 

Aquatic Macroinvertebrates 25 

SUMMARY 2 6 

RECOMMENDATIONS 2 6 

LITERATURE CITED 27 

TABLES 3 6 

FIGURES 7 4 

APPENDIX A 89 

APPENDIX B 91 

APPENDIX C 107 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



This research was supported by a grant from the Commonwealth 
Edison Company. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribu- 
tions of Julia Wozniak at Commonwealth Edison and thank Illinois 
Natural History Survey employees Christine A. Mayer, Alan D. 
McLuckie, Kevin J. Ward, Craig D. Schmittler, Jefferson A. Schott, 
and Charles LeCrone for assistance they provided in the field and 
laboratory. The authors are indebted to Deanna Glosser for 
digitizing the study reach and to Dr. Lewis Osborne for his 
consultations regarding use of the ARC/INFO system. Appreciation 
is extended to the following INKS systematists for assistance in 
specimen identifications: Dr. Robin Moran and William McKnight 
(Macrophytes) , Dr. Warren U. Brigham, (Coleoptera) , and Dr. 
Lawrence M. Page, (Amphipoda, Decapoda, and Isopoda) . 



DISCLAIMER 



This report was prepared for the Commonwealth Edison Company 
which funded this research. The findings, conclusions, 
recommendations, and views expressed are those of the researchers 
and should not be considered as the official position of the 
Commonwealth Edison Company. 



DES PLAINES RIVER LONG-TERl-I MONITORING PROGRAM 
PHASE I REPORT 



INTRODUCTION 

The major objective of Phase I of the Des Plaines River Long- 
Temn Monitoring Program was to monitor and evaluate habitat 
quality in a 21-km (13-mile) reach of the Des Plaines River 
between Brandon Road Lock and Dam (river mile 286) and the 
confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers (river mile 273) 
(Fig. 1) . The data collected in the summer and winter of 1985- 
1986 provide a benchmark for assessment of changes in habitat, 
vegetation, and macroinvertebrates. 

Phase I of the monitoring program consisted of two compo- 
nents: (1) an aquatic macrophyte component which identified and 
mapped major vegetation types and habitats (data collected July- 
August 1985) and (2) a benthic macroinvertebrate component which 
included evaluations of macroinvertebrate habitats and sampling 
methods (data collected July-August 1985) and a winter survey of 
benthos (samples collected January 1986) for comparison with 
collections of 1984 (Ecological Analysts 1984) and 1977 (Nalco 
Environmental Sciences 1978) . 

The study site, located in Will and Grundy counties, Illi- 
nois, included the Des Plaines River from Brandon Road Lock and 
Dam to the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers, and 
Grant Creek, a tributary of the Des Plaines River, which enters 
near river mile 274 (Fig. 1) . A number of industries, including 
Mobil Oil, AMOCO, Olin Matheson, Commonwealth Edison, and Rexall 
Chemical, are located along this reach. Treated effluents from 
the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago released 
into the Sanitary and Ship Canal ultimately enter the Des Plaines 
River 6.4 km (4 miles) upstream of the study reach. 



SECTION 1 

VEGETATION ANALYSES AND HABITAT CHARACTERIZATION 

by Pamela P. Tazik 

INTRODUCTION 

Macrophytes are an integral part of aquatic systems. They 
modify and diversify habitat and fuel secondary production. 
Macrophytes produce oxygen, cycle nutrients, stabilize sediments, 
provide cover for fishes, and supply food and substrate for 
macroinvertebrates and microorganisms (Richardson 1921, Bennett 
1971, Raschke 1978, Wright et al. 1981, Wiley and Gorden 1984, 
Barko et al. 1986). The average macrophyte-associated fauna can 
be as much as eight times that of the average biomass of bottom 
fauna, such as fingernail clams and aquatic earthworms (Richardson 
1921) . Macrophytes also modify flow velocities and patterns, 
altering the amount and location of sediment deposition, light 
penetration, and other environmental characteristics (Hynes 1970, 
Westlake 1973) . Thus, aquatic habitat quality, except in systems 
that are phytoplankton or detritus based, is largely governed by 
presence and characteristics of macrophytes. To assess habitat 
quality and the potential for a productive fishery, macrophyte 
populations must be examined. 

Submersed and floating aquatic plants once flourished in the 
Illinois River Valley. Since the early 1960 's, submersed and all 
but one species of floating plants have virtually disappeared from 
the Illinois River and its bottomland lakes. A 1978 suirvey 
indicated that occasionally conditions exist that allow limited 
growth of submersed aquatic plants more tolerant of turbidity and 
pollution such as Potamogeton spp., Vallisneria americana , and 
Ceratophyllum demersum (Havera et al. 1980). 

The major objective of this component of the Des Plaines 
River Long-Term Monitoring Program was to document the species and 
extent of aquatic macrophytes occurring in the study reach to 
provide a benchmark for comparison with future surveys of 
vegetation and habitat. 



MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Aquatic vegetation data were collected during a 2-week period 
in July and August 1985. Vegetation was mapped, plant specimens 
were collected for identification and archiving in the Illinois 
Natural History Survey's herbarium, and standing crop biomass was 
measured. 

Aquatic vegetation was mapped by recording location and 
extent of submersed and emersed vegetation beds on base maps. 
Base maps consisted of enlarged U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 
7.5-minute series topographic quadrangle maps that were produced 
in 1954 and photorevised in 1973. Since then, river boundaries at 
some locations have shifted. Deviations from USGS maps as 
observed during field collections and on aerial photographs were 
incorporated onto the base maps. 

Updated maps of the river reach with combined aquatic 
vegetation data were digitized and entered into the Geographic 
Information System (ARC/INFO) at the Illinois Natural History 
Survey. After digitizing, coverage of plant beds and habitat 
classes were calculated using the INFO system. 

Location and extent of many plant beds were delineated using 
the Motorola Mini-Ranger III System (MRS III) . This system 
provides a means of determining the position of a mobile unit, 
such as a boat, with respect to two radar transponders located at 
fixed reference points. The MRS III operates on the basic 
principle of pulse radar. A receiver-transmitter assembly, which 
is mounted on the mobile unit, is used to interrogate two 
reference stations. Elapsed time between transmitted 
interrogation signal and each of the two reply signals is used to 
determine the range of each reference station. Range information 
can then be used to locate the position of the mobile unit, 
positioned at a plant bed, by triangulation. The MRS III was on 
loan from the Upper Mississippi River Basin Association to the 
Illinois Natural History Survey River Research Laboratory, Havana, 
Illinois. 

Transect methods were used to characterize and map 
vegetation. The line transect method, a plotless sample 
technique, is typically used to determine frequency of occurrence 
and results are expressed as a percentage of the total number of 
data points collected. Location and extent of plant beds are 
recorded continuously or at designated intervals along transect 
lines (Ager and Kearce 1970, Holcomb and Wegener 1971, Kershaw 
1973, Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg 1974, Raschke 1978). This 
method was used in three areas. Below Brandon Road Dam, transect 
lines were established at 60-m intervals from the left bank 
(facing downstream) into the river as far as one could safely 
walk; distances were measured using a fiberglass tape measure. At 
the mouth of the Du Page River, transect lines were established at 
200-m intervals from the right bank into the main channel; 
measurements were made using the Mini-Ranger III. Near the 
confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers, transect lines 
were established at 100-m intervals along the right bank 
downstream from the overflow of the Illinois & Michigan Canal and 



extended to the left bank; data were collected using the Mini- 
Ranger III. 

A second method, belt transects, was used concurrently with 
line transects; size and number of plant beds within 1 m of either 
side of the transect line were recorded (Mueller-Dombois and 
Ellenberg 1974, Raschke 1978). This sample plot technique yields 
cover estimates for species within the sample plot (2-m belt) in 
addition to frequency of occurrence data. Using these data, 
estimates of relative species abundance were obtained. 

Low-altitude aerial color photographs of the study reach 
(Aero-Metric Engineering Co.) were taken during the last week of 
July 1985. The photographs documented the location and extent of 
plant beds in the reach. Photo interpretation data were combined 
with species abundance and cover data generated by ground-truth 
mapping (including transect analysis, visual estimates, and hand 
mapping) to produce detailed vegetation maps. 

Habitats were classified using the Classification of Wetlands 
and Deepwater Habitats of the United States (Cowardin et al . 
1979), a hierarchical system used to describe and inventory 
wetland and deepwater resources nationwide. This system aids in 
resource management decisions and provides uniformity in 
terminology and concepts (Cowardin et al. 1979). 

Representative specimens of aquatic plants collected during 
the survey were identified and preserved. Identifications were 
made to species when possible; this is often dependent upon the 
presence of seeds and/or flowering structures (Fassett 1940, 
Muenscher 1944, Beal 1977). Specimens were archived in the 
Illinois Natural History Survey herbarium, and identifications 
were verified by taxonomists at the Illinois Natural History 
Survey (Section of Botany and Plant Pathology) . 

Macrophyte standing crop was measured by quadrat sampling 
(Tazik and Wiley 1985) . A cylindrical hardware cloth sampler 
(0.25-m area) with sheet metal support at the bottom was lowered 
into a submersed plant bed; all plant material from within the 
sampler was raked out. Emersed macrophytes were sampled with a 
ring sampler (0.25-m area) that was lowered over the plants and 
secured in shallow-water sediments. Plants were then cut at the 
sediment-water interface and collected (Tazik and Wiley 1985) . 

Immediately following collection, macrophyte samples were 
rinsed in a sieve (5-mm mesh) and placed in labeled bags. On 
shore, submersed plant samples were spun to remove excess water. 
Fresh weights were measured using an Ohaus balance. Emersed 
macrophytes were weighed after sediments and excess water had been 
removed. Where necessary, samples were sorted by species. 
Samples of each macrophyte species were returned to the Illinois 
Natural History Survey laboratory to obtain dry weights (Tazik and 
Wiley 1985) . 



RESULTS 
MACROPHYTE TAXA 

Seventeen aquatic macrophyte species were collected from the 
study reach (Table 1) . Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, 
Myriophyllum sp., Vallisneria americana, and all but one 
Potamogeton species are submersed aquatic macrophytes and all are 
rooted plants except the floating macrophyte C. demersum . 
Dianthera americana, Phragmites communis , Saqittaria latifolia, 
Scirpus sp. , and Typha spp. are emersed macrophytes. Nelumbo 
lutea and Potamogeton sp. were the only floating-leaved 
macrophytes collected during sampling. Eleocharis aciculara was 
found completely submersed in the upper reaches of the study area, 
but it can also thrive when not inundated (Beal 1977) . 

Although Calamagrostis , Graminacea, and Polygonum sp. were 
collected near the islands just below Brandon Road Dam, they are 
not true aquatic macrophytes (unless Polygonum sp. is 
P. f luitans ) . These plants frequently tolerate inundation 
resulting from water-level regulation at the dam. 



TRANSECT ANALYSIS 

Potamogeton spp. and Myriophyllum sp. were the most abundant 
macrophytes in the Brandon Road area (Table 2) . Vallisneria 
americana occupied nearly 40% of the vegetated area at the mouth 
of the Du Page River; Myriophyllum sp. and P. pectinatus were 
abundant in that area as well. Three submersed macrophytes of 
equal abundance at the rivers' confluence were V. americana , 
P. pectinatus , and P. crispus (Table 2) . 

AQUATIC VEGETATION IN THE DES PLAINES RIVER (River mile 273-286) 

Over 4 6 ha of the study reach contained aquatic vegetation 
(Table 3, Fig. 2). The areas most heavily vegetated were located 
near river miles 273, 277-278, 279-280, and 285-286. Saqittaria 
latifolia , Potamogeton crispus , P. pectinatus , and Myriophyllum 
sp. covered 73% of the total vegetated area in the study reach 
(Table 3) . Sagittaria latifolia occupied nearly 12 ha (25% of 
the total vegetated area) and was the dominant species in several 
areas of the reach. Potamogeton crispus comprised 23% of the 
total vegetated area (10.72 ha) and was particularly abundant just 
below Brandon Road Dam and at the confluence of the Des Plaines 
and Kankakee rivers. Potamogeton pectinatus , a narrow-leaved 
macrophyte, covered 5.74 ha (12% of the total vegetated area), and 
Myriophyllum occupied 5.35 ha (11% of the total); both species 
were abundant at the mouth of the Du Page River and just below 
Brandon Road Dam. 

Submersed and floating-leaved macrophytes covered 31 ha of 
the study reach (Table 3) . A large portion of the submersed 
macrophyte population was composed of Potamogeton spp. (65%) and 
Myriophyllum sp. (17%) . Emersed vegetation covered 15 ha of the 



reach. Sagittaria latifolia inhabited nearly 12 ha (78% of the 
area) and Typha spp. inhabited 3 ha (20% of the emersed vegetated 
area) (Table 3) . 

To facilitate analysis of results, the 13-mile study reach 
was divided into segments. Segments of similar length were 
delimited without separating heavily vegetated areas. Cover and 
composition of plant populations in each segment are discussed 
individually (Fig. 3-10, Tables 4-6) . Artificial water 
boundary lines were drawn in selected segments to permit percent 
cover calculations in heavily vegetated areas. Results by study 
reach segment are followed by standing crop and habitat 
classification results. 



VEGETATION ANALYSES BY RIVER SEGMENTS 

Segment 1. River mile 284.5-286, Brandon Road Lock and Dam. 

Segment 1 was the most heavily vegetated segment. Species 
inhabiting this area included Myriophyllum sp. , Potamogeton 
pectinatus , P. crispus , P. zosterif ormis , Potamogeton sp. , 
Eleocharis aciculara, Typha spp., Sagittaria latifolia , and 
Scirpus spp. (Tables 4 and 5) . Myriophyllum sp. and Potamogeton 
spp. covered over 11 ha, or 84%, of the vegetated area (Tables 4- 
6). 

Submersed macrophytes covered 12.1 ha, or 92%, of the vegetated 
area; the remainder was emersed vegetation (Fig. 3, Tables 4-6). 
Most emersed vegetation was Sagittaria latifolia , which was 
located downstream of Commonwealth Edison's Power plant units. 
Segment 1 covered 66 ha, 20% of which was vegetated. The side 
channel area within the water boundary lines (31 ha) was nearly 
36% vegetated (Fig. 3, Table 6). 

Segment 2. River mile 282-284.5. 

Only 1.92 ha, or 2.2%, of the 88 ha in this segment were 
vegetated (Tables 4 and 6) . The dominant macrophyte, Sagittaria 
latifolia, occupied 94% (1.82 ha) of the vegetated area and 
submersed vegetation occupied the remaining 6% (Fig. 4, Tables 5 
and 6) . 

Segment 3 . River mile 280-282. 

Only emersed macrophytes, Sagittaria latifolia, Typha spp., 
and Phragmites communis , inhabited this sparsely vegetated area 
(2.7% of the 78 ha of water) (Table 4). Sagittaria latifolia 
covered 1.78 ha, or 83%, of the vegetated area. Typha spp. and P. 
communis occupied the remainder of the vegetated area (Tables 4 
and 5, Fig. 5) . 

Segment 4. River mile 278.2-280, Treats Island area. 

Although this segment contained considerably more vegetation 
than the previous two segments, the dominant emersed macrophytes 



were also Sagittaria latifolia and Typha spp. (Fig. 6, Table 4) . 
There were 7.1 ha of S. latifolia and 1.67 ha of Typha spp. (96% 
of the vegetated area) in the side channel at Treats Island 
(Table 4). Vallisneria americana, Myriophyllum sp. , and 
Phragmites communis contributed the other 4% (Tables 4 and 5) . Of 
the 71 ha in this segment, 12.8% was vegetated. The side channel 
at Treats Island (indicated by the arbitrary water boundary lines) 
contained most of the vegetation and was the second most heavily 
vegetated area within the study reach (39% vegetated) (Table 6, 
Fig. 6) . 

Segment 5. River mile 276.5-278.2, Mouth of the Du Page River. 

The area at the mouth of the Du Page River contained nearly 
13 ha of vegetation; 12 ha were occupied by submersed macrophytes 
(Table 4, Fig. 7). The three most abundant macrophytes were 
Myriophyllum sp. , Vallisneria americana , and Potamogeton 
pectinatus (Tables 4 and 5) . Of 141 ha within the artificial 
water boundary lines, 12.76 ha (9%) were vegetated (Fig. 7, 
Table 6) . 

Segment 6. River mile 275-276.5, Will County Forest Preserve Island, 

Of the 0.2 ha of vegetation near Will Co. Forest Preserve 
Island (Table 4) , Ceratophyllum demersum , Potamogeton pectinatus , 
and P. zosteriformis covered 0.08 ha (Fig 8) . A bed of Typha spp. 
near river mile 275 comprised over 50% of the vegetated area 
(Tables 4 and 5, Fig. 8) . The surface area of this segment was 
110 ha, only 0.2% of which was vegetated (Table 6). 

Segment 7. River mile 273.5-275, Grant Creek. 

No aguatic vegetation was present in the river proper, but 
Grant Creek contained nearly 1 ha of vegetation (Fig. 9, Table 4). 
Nelumbo lutea, a floating-leaved macrophyte, covered 0.47 ha or 
48% of the total vegetated area (Fig. 9, Tables 4 and 5). 
Submersed vegetation included Ceratophyllum demersum , Myriophyllum 
sp., Potamogeton pectinatus , and Potamogeton sp. ; and emersed 
vegetation included Typha spp., Sagittaria latifolia, and 
Dianthera americana (Fig. 9, Tables 4 and 5). Grant Creek (see 
water boundary lines) covered 26 ha, 3.7% of which was vegetated 
(Table 6, Fig. 9) . 

Segment 8. River mile 273-273.5, Confluence. 

This segment was the third most heavily vegetated segment. 
Of the 39 ha within the water boundary lines, 6.11 ha (15.7%) were 
vegetated (Fig. 10, Tables 4 and 6) . Potamogeton crispus covered 
90% (5.5 ha) of the vegetated area (Tables 4 and 5). 
Potamogeton pectinatus and Typha spp. occupied 4% and 2% of the 
vegetated area, respectively. Other macrophytes present 
included Vallisneria americana , Potamogeton sp. , Myriophyllum sp. , 
and Sagittaria latifolia (Tables 4 and 5) . 



MACROPHYTE STANDING CROP 

Standing crop estimates were based on a total of 60 
macrophyte biomass samples. _Standing crop estimates ranged from 
12.8 to 252.7 g dry weight m~ for submersed vegetation and 712.4 
to 3,612.2 g dry weight m for emersed vegetation (Table 7). 
Ceratophyllum demersum, Nelumbo lutea, and Potamogeton crispus had 
the lowest standing crop per unit area, while Phragmites communis 
had the highest (Table 7). 

Using the areal coverage and standing crop estimates, total 
standing crop for the study reach was calculated (Table 7) . 
Sagittaria latifolia produced the most plant biomass in the reach 
(84,633 kg) followed by Typha spp. , Myriophyllum sp. , Vallisneria 
americana, Potamogeton pectinatus , and Phragmites communis (Table 
7). Submersed macrophytes produced an estimated 32,258 kg of 
biomass and emersed macrophytes 120,705 kg for a total of 152,963 
kg. Assuming sampling occurred during peak standing crop, 
approximately 152,963 kg of aquatic vegetation was produced_during 
the growing season and vegetated areas averaged 3,3 07 kg ha" or 
331 g m" . 



CLASSIFICATION 

The study reach is classified as Riverine System which 
includes all wetlands and deepwater habitats within a channel 
except (1) wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent 
emergents, emergent mosses, or lichens, and (2) habitats within 
water containing ocean-derived salts in excess of 0.5% (Table 8) 
(Cowardin et al. 1979). 

The study reach has water flowing throughout the year and 
substrates of rock, cobble, or gravel with occasional patches of 
sand; it is classified in the Upper Perennial Subsystem . Side 
channel areas and some channel border areas, such as at the mouth 
of the Du Page River, are in the Lower Perennial Subsystem, which 
includes areas of low water velocity and sand and mud substrates. 

Class, the next step in the hierarchy, is the highest 
taxonomic unit and describes the general appearance of habitat in 
terms of vegetative life form or physiography and composition of 
substrate. Data collected in 1985 allows classification of study 
reach areas according to vegetative life form. 

Nearly all vegetated areas of the study reach are in one of 
two classes. Aquatic Bed or Emergent Wetland. Aquatic Bed 
includes diverse plant communities that require surface water for 
optimum growth and reproduction (Cowardin et al . 1979). Most 
submersed vascular macrophytes in this reach belong to the 
Rooted Vascular Subclass which includes macrophytes with submersed 
and floating leaves. Ceratophyllum demersum is a non-rooted 
submersed macrophyte and is classified in the subclass Floating 
Vascular. 

The Emergent Wetland Class includes persistent and 
nonpersistent subclasses. Most emersed macrophytes in the reach 
are nonpersistent because they fall to the surface of the 
substrate or below the water surface at the end of the growing 



season (Cowardin et al. 1979) . Phragmites communis persists year- 
round and belongs in the Persistent Subclass. The Persistent 
Subclass is in the Palustrine System (Table 8) , so a small part of 
the study reach (0.13 ha of Phragmites communis ) is not in the 
Riverine System. 

Habitats within the study reach of the Des Plaines River may 
also be classified according to a system developed for scientific 
study and fisheries management by the Upper Mississippi River 
Conservation Committee (Rasmussen 1979) . Habitat classifications 
include main channel, main channel border, tail waters, side 
channels, river lakes and ponds, and sloughs. Classifications 
found within the Des Plaines study reach include main channel, 
main channel border, side channel, and slough. 

The main channel includes that portion of the river through 
which commercial craft can operate (Rasmussen 1979) . Within the 
study reach the main channel accounts for 35.4% of the water 
surface area and contains no vegetation. Main channel border 
exists in the zone between the navigation channel and the main 
river bank, islands, or submerged definitions of the old main 
river (Rasmussen 1979) . Main channel border habitats encompass 
28.8% of the study reach and contain 4.8 ha of emersed and . 1 ha 
of submersed vegetation, primarily in segments 1,2 and 3 of the 
reach (Fig. 3-5; Table 4). 

Side channels include all departures from the main channel 
and main channel border in which there is current during normal 
river stage (Rasmussen 1979) . Side channels cover 34% of the 
study reach and contain 81% of the macrophyte vegetation. 
Sloughs are narrow branches or offshoots of the main water body 
and are characterized by no current at normal water stage. They 
may be former side channels that have been cut off (Rasmussen 
1979). Only 1.8% of the study reach is classified as slough 
habitat and those areas contain a total of 3.7 ha of Sagittaria 
latifolia. 



DISCUSSION 

A variety of submersed and emersed vegetation inhabited the 
study reach in 1985. Four areas contained appreciable amounts of 
vegetation: below Brandon Road Dam, the side channel at Treats 
Island, the mouth of the Du Page River, and the confluence of the 
Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers. The side channel at Treats 
Island was dominated by emersed vegetation, primarily Sagittaria 
latifolia and Typha spp. Other areas were dominated by submersed 
macrophytes, primarily Myriophyllum sp., Potamogeton spp., and 
Vallisneria americana. Sagittaria latifolia dominated one heavily 
vegetated area along with several more sparsely vegetated areas, 
comprising 25% of the total macrophyte community. Submersed 
macrophytes, including Potamogeton spp., Myriophyllum sp. , and 
V. americana , comprised 63% of the total macrophyte community. 

The aquatic macrophyte species present were all typical of 
riverine systems in temperate climatic zones, and all serve 
important functions in their lotic environment (Clark et al. 1983, 
Sparks 1984, Donnermeyer and Smart 1985, Anderson et al. 1986). 
They produce oxygen, stabilize sediments, and cycle nutrients 
through the system. They also interact with other biotic 
components of the system by providing food and habitat for 
migrating and nesting waterfowl, shelter for fishes, and food and 
substrate for macroinvertebrates (Sculthorpe 1967, Bennett 1971, 
Wright et al. 1981, Wiley and Gorden 1984, Barko et al. 1986). 

Except for the Mississippi River, quantitative estimates of 
macrophyte abundance from river systems in temperate areas are 
limited (Sparks 1984, Donnermeyer and Smart 1985) . Standing crop 
estimates for Potamogeton pectinatus , Vallisneria americana, 
Potamogeton sp. , and Sagittaria latifolia from other studies 
(Anderson et al. 1986, Donnermeyer and Smart 1985, Clark 1983) 
fall within the range of values obtained in this study. 

Standing crop estimates for Sagittaria latifolia, Typha spp., 
Potamogeton pectinatus , and Phragmites communis from lentic 
studies were also similar to estimates in this study (Westlake 
1963, Sculthorpe 1967, Wiley and Gorden 1984, Tazik and Wiley 
1985) . However, other macrophytes, including Potamogeton crispus , 
Nelumbo lutea, and Ceratophyllum demersum, had considerably lower 
standing crops than those reported by Moran (1981) , Sparks (1984) , 
and Wiley and Gorden (1984) . 

The general condition of the macrophytes throughout the reach 
were not noticeably different except that Sagittaria latifolia 
beds in the side channel by Treats Island were in excellent 
condition, whereas those beds further upstream (river mile 281- 
284.5) were in poorer condition. Upstream beds had fewer leaves 
and plant stems were less rigid and darker in color. These 
macrophytes inhabited an area much less protected from wave action 
than the beds near Treats Island and were probably subjected to 
higher water velocities, increased turbidity, and different water 
temperatures. Any of these factors could have caused these beds 
to produce less vigorous growth or to shift the timing of 
production in the growing season (Westlake 1967, 1973; Haag and 
Gorham 1977; Grace and Tilly 1978). 

10 



Based on water depth and current velocity, two large areas 
one might expect to be densely vegetated, Grant Creek and the 
slough at Will County Forest Preserve Island, were instead 
sparsely vegetated. Sediment conditions may have been one reason 
why the slough was not vegetated; they were flocculent, loose, and 
easily disturbed. Such conditions perpetuate high turbidity 
levels which reduce light penetration. This contributes to the 
decline of macrophyte populations and inhibits re-establishment as 
well (Jackson and Starrett 1959, Mills et al. 1966). Loose, 
unstable sediments also impede establishment and maintenance of 
submersed aquatic macrophytes by reducing the ability of roots to 
anchor plants in the substrate (Sculthorpe 1967) . However, 
sediments at the mouth of the Du Page River were very unstable in 
places, yet supported rooted vegetation. Thus, other factors may 
be contributing to the lack of vegetation in the slough at Will 
County Forest Preserve Island. 

Sediments in Grant Creek were stable and firm, so sediment 
stability is not considered a reason for the scarcity of 
vegetation in this area. Water depth and clarity seemed conducive 
to vegetation establishment and growth. Lack of vegetation may 
result from low nutrient levels, poor water quality conditions, or 
the presence of toxic substances. Possibly habitat conditions had 
been poor, but have improved so that macrophyte communities were 
beginning to establish. Additional research is needed to 
adequately address these questions. 

Transect analyses were used to help characterize submersed 
vegetation where beds were relatively small, somewhat distant from 
each other, and difficult to distinguish using other ground-truth 
techniques. During field sampling it was unclear how well defined 
these beds would be on the aerial photographs. 

Below Brandon Road Bridge and at the mouth of the Du Page 
River, transect data were similar to data resulting from 
integration of all mapping methods, suggesting transect analyses 
adequately described the vegetation. However, transect data from 
the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers did not 
represent the plant community as well. The floating-leaved 
Potamogeton sp. was the only macrophyte accurately represented in 
the transect data. Vallisneria americana and P. pectinatus were 
over-represented and P. crispus was under-represented. To obtain 
better species representation, transects must be established at 
closer intervals. Decreasing the interval between transects 
increases the number of transects and sample size. Widening belt 
transects may also be appropriate. 

Remote sensing has been used extensively to map aquatic 
vegetation (Austin 1978, Long 1979, Dardeau 1983, Leonard 1984). 
Although infrared film is useful for aerial photography of 
terrestrial vegetation, natural color has proven more useful for 
defining submersed aquatic vegetation (Austin 1978, Long 1979). 
Aerial photographs of the Des Plaines study reach were very clear, 
accurately indicating location and bed size of submersed and 
emersed vegetation. Often differences between emersed vegetation 
types and between submersed and floating-leaf vegetation beds were 
clearly depicted. Remote sensing techniques provide valuable 
information and should be used in future studies. 



11 



During Phase I, an estimate of the quantity and quality of 
aquatic vegetation was obtained. However, because aquatic plant 
populations vary seasonally and annually, several consecutive 
years of study are necessary to accurately describe the status and 
trends in aquatic vegetation populations. This initial 
characterization process requires a minimum of 3 years of aerial 
photograph interpretation and ground-truth verification. 
Following this initial characterization, a monitoring program can 
be maintained through annual aerial photograph interpretation and 
detailed ground-truth verification at 3- to 5-year intervals or 
whenever marked changes in plant cover or habitat type are 
detected. This long-term monitoring is conducted at a reduced 
level of effort and expense. 

Because assessing factors limiting aquatic life is an 
objective of this monitoring program, macrophyte interactions with 
toxic substances should be assessed. Substances in the 
environment being accumulated or concentrated by macrophytes 
should be identified. 



12 



SUMMARY 



1. Seventeen aquatic vascular macrophyte species were collected 
from the 21-km study reach of the Des Plaines River in July-August 
1985. These macrophytes occupied over 46 ha within the reach and 
produced an estimated 153,000 kg of biomass. 

2. The most heavily vegetated areas were just below Brandon Road 
Dam (river mile 286-285.3), the side channel by Treats Island 
(river mile 280-279) , the mouth of the Du Page River (river mile 
276.5-278), and the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee 
rivers (river mile 273-273.5). Three areas were dominated by 
submersed and one by emersed vegetation (Treats Island side 
channel) . 

3. Sagittaria latifolia , Potamogeton crispus , Potamogeton 
pectinatus , and Myriophyllum sp. were the most abundant 
macrophytes, covering 73% of the total vegetated area. 

4. Whole plant standing crop estimates for submersed macrophytes 
ranged from 12.8 ( Ceratophyllum demersum ) to 252.7 g dry weight 
m~ ( Myriophyllum sp.). Above ground standing crop estimates for 
emersed vegetation ranged from 712.4 ( Sagittaria latifolia) to 
3,612.2 g dry weight m ( Phragmites communis ) . Most biomass 
estimates were comparable to those from other lotic and lentic 
studies. 

5. Condition of Sagittaria latifolia varied within the study 
reach. Beds between river mile 281 and 284.5 were in poorer 
condition than beds in other areas, possibly due to higher current 
velocity, lower water clarity, or different water temperature 
conditions. 

6. Two areas one might expect to be heavily vegetated were only 
sparsely vegetated. Possible causes include flocculent and 
unstable sediments, sediment toxicity, and water clarity. 

7. The study reach is classified as a Riverine System except for a 
small area inhabited by Phragmites communis , which is classified 
in the Persistent Wetland Subclass of the Palustrine System. 

8. Low-altitude natural color aerial photographs of the study 
reach taken in late July 1985 permitted accurate determination of 
location and bed size of submersed and emersed vegetation. This 
mapping technique should be used in all future surveys. 



13 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



1. Vegetation characterization conducted during Phase I (1985) 
should be continued in Phases II and III (1986 and 1987) . 

2. Factors that limit aquatic life, including habitat 
characteristics, sediment toxicity, and boat traffic, should be 
addressed in Phases II and III. 

3. Toxic substance levels in macrophyte tissues, sediments, and 
water should be determined, and the interactions of these 
substances with biotic ecosystem components should be addressed. 



14 



SECTION 2 



MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES 



Richard E. Sparks 
K. Douglas Blodgett 
Gary L. Warren 
Mark J. Wetzel 



INTRODUCTION 

Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities are essential 
components of freshwater ecosystems because of their roles in the 
processing and cycling of organic matter and their value as a food 
resource for higher level consumers including fishes, shore birds, 
wading birds, and ducks. The composition and structure (relative 
abundance, taxa richness, and diversity) of these relatively 
sessile communities are directly influenced by the environmental 
conditions prevailing during their development. The study of 
these complexes of organisms is extremely useful in the assessment 
of the water quality and biological condition of aquatic systems. 

Benthic surveys conducted in 1977 by Nalco Environmental 
Sciences and in 1984 by Ecological Analysts, Inc. were limited in 
scope to basically two habitat types — main channel and main 
channel border. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with 
other aquatic habitat types, such as backwater areas, 
rapids/riffles, and aquatic macrophyte beds, were not sampled. 
Also, it is probable that some small macroinvertebrate taxa 
present in ponar samples collected by Environmental Analysts were 
lost during processing because 30-mesh (595-;am openings) screening 
was used to wash samples before they were returned to the 
laboratory for picking and identification. 

The specific objectives of this component of Phase I were to: 
(1) develop and evaluate sampling methodologies that will 
adequately characterize macroinvertebrate communities during the 
Des Plaines River Long-Term Monitoring Program, (2) ascertain the 
quality of the macroinvertebrate communities currently supported 
in the study reach of the Des Plaines River by sampling several 
habitats (including those of the May 1977 and January 1984 
studies) , and (3) compare the benthic component of the Des Plaines 
River macroinvertebrate community with that of the Kankakee River, 
a nearby river of similar size and habitats which joins the Des 
Plaines to form the Illinois River (Fig. 1, pg. 2), but which does 
not receive input from the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal or 
commercial navigation traffic. 



15 



MATERIALS AND METHODS 

SAMPLING SITES 

In summer 1985, macroinvertebrate sampling locations were 
selected to: (1) represent the habitat types characteristic of the 
reach, and (2) provide comparisons of similar habitat types from 
different areas of the study reach (Table 9, Fig. 11-14, Appendix 
A) . A total of 13 petite ponar, 2 Surber, and 4 macrophyte 
samples were processed and analyzed. 

The January 19 8 6 resuirvey was conducted along the three 
transects previously sampled (Nalco 1978, Ecological Analysts 
1984) to allow for comparisons between the present and preceding 
studies (Fig. 15) . On each transect three samples were collected 
from each of three sites: midchannel (M) , right (facing 
downstream) channel border (R) , and left channel border (L) , 
yielding a total of 27 samples. 

SAMPLING GEAR 

In summer 1985, benthic macroinvertebrate communities were 
sampled using standard methods, depending on substrate type (Table 
9) . Relatively soft-bottomed habitats were sampled with a petite 
ponar (area sampled = 0.024 m ) and washed in 300-/im mesh Nitex 
sieve buckets. Hard-bottom and rocky substrates in shallow water 
were sampled with a Surber swift-water sampler (area sampled = 
0.093 m , mesh size = 1050 /im) . 

Aquatic macroinvertebrates were collected from four species 
of aquatic macrophytes (one sample per species) using a hand 
sampler constructed of a 0.60-m long cone of 200->im mesh cloth, 
with a wide-mouth quart jar attached to one end and a piece of 15- 
cm diameter PVC pipe attached to the other end. A portion of the 
aquatic plant was carefully guided into the open end of the pipe, 
broken off by hand, and the macroinvertebrates rinsed into the 
jar. 

All samples collected for the January 1986 resurvey were 
taken using the petite ponar dredge as described above. 

PRESERVATION AND LAB METHODS 

Samples collected in summer 1985 were preserved in 10% 
buffered formalin, and those collected in January 1986 were 
preserved in 10% alcohol and later transferred to 10% buffered 
formalin. In the laboratory, samples selected for analysis were 
processed by sucrose flotation to remove inorganic sediments 
(Anderson 1959) . Because previous studies employed a 595-;am sieve 
to wash samples, samples collected in January 1986 were 
differentially sieved and only the component retained on 595-^m 
sieve was analyzed for this report. 

Each sample was examined separately under a stereo dissecting 
microscope with magnification up to 40x. Organisms were 

16 



hand-picked from detritus and inorganic material and temporarily- 
stored in 80% ethanol. Prior to identification, Oligochaeta were 
mounted on slides with Gurr Hydromount and Chironomidae were 
cleared in 10% KOH and slide-mounted in polyvinyl lactophenol. 

Identification of aquatic oligochaetes and chironomids were 
made using either an Olympus model BH compound microscope with 
fluorite phase or a Zeiss Standard 14 compound microscope with 
Nomarski differential interference contrast. 



TAXONOMIC PROCEDURES 

Taxonomic determinations were then made by systematic 
specialists using the following taxonomic literature: 

Turbellaria, Nematoda, Ectoprocta: Pennak (1978) . 

Annelida: Brinkhurst and Jamieson (1971) ; Hiltunen and Klemm 
(1980); Wetzel et al.; (1981); Stimpson et al. (1982); and 
Brinkhurst (1986) were used in the identification of aquatic 
oligochaete specimens. Wetzel (1981, 1982a, 1987a); Whitley 
(1982) ; and Brinkhurst and Wetzel (1984) provided additional 
taxonomic and ecological inforination useful in the collection 
and study of aquatic Oligochaeta. Nomenclatural information 
followed Reynolds and Cook (1976; 1981) and Brinkhurst and 
Wetzel (1984). Klemm et al. (1979); Wetzel et al. (1981); 
Klemm (1982); and Wetzel (1982b; 1987b) were used in the 
identification and study of the Hirudinea (leeches) . 

Both external and internal characteristics were used in 
the identification of Annelida. Identifications of most 
tubificids were completed to species level only when specimens 
were sexually mature. Immature tubificids were classified as 
unidentifiable immature with capilliform chaetae (UIW/CC) or 
unidentifiable immature without capillifoinn chaetae (UIW/OCC) . 
Only anterior fragments of individuals were counted for 
statistical analyses. 

Crustacea: Williams (1972); Page (1974, 1985). 

Ephemeroptera: Burks (1953); Edmunds et al. (1976). 

Odonata: Hilsenhoff (1975). 

Trichoptera: Ross (1944) ; Wiggins (1977) . 

Coleoptera: Brigham et al. (1982). 

Diptera: Beck and Beck (1969) ; Hirvenoja (1973) ; Hilsenhoff 
(1975) ; Roback (1977) ; Soponis (1977) ; Simpson and Bode 
(1980); Cranston et al. (1983); Fittkau and Roback (1983); 
Pinder and Reiss (1983) ; Coffman and Ferrington (1984) . 

Gastropoda: Burch (1982) . 



DATA ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS 

Counts of organisms from macrophyte samples (sites 22-25) 
were not converted to number per unit plant surface area or 
biomass: these samples were considered qualitative only. Counts 



17 



from samples taken with the petite ponar and Surber were converted 
to number of organisms per square meter. Diversity and evenness 
values were calculated for each sample using formulas of Shannon 
(1948) and Pielou (1966) , respectively. 

Channel sites sampled in summer 1985 were grouped into main 
channel sites (2, 3, 5, 7, and 9) and side channel sites (10, 12, 
13, 15, and 16) for comparison. For data collected January 1986, 
comparisons were made between individual site means and between 
transect means. Analysis of variance, followed by Duncan's 
multiple range procedure, was used to test for significant 
differences between mean sample counts. 



18 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

This section includes results and discussions of: (1) the 
effectiveness of the sampling methods tested in summer 1985, (2) a 
qualitative comparison of invertebrate faunas collected from 
different habitats in summer 1985, (3) the Chironomidae and 
Oligochaeta (the numerically dominant groups) , (4) a quantitative 
comparison of the summer invertebrate fauna of the Des Plaines 
with that of the relatively clean Kankakee River, (5) a comparison 
between the 1986 winter benthic survey and previous surveys, (6) 
what the low taxa diversity values, d, indicate about water 
quality, and (7) a note regarding rare and threatened species. 

SAMPLING METHODOLOGIES 

Standard techniques for collection of macroinvertebrates 
proved satisfactory with the following exceptions. Where the 
substrates ranged from large rocks to bedrock, both the petite 
ponar and standard ponar were usually empty when retrieved. Rocks 
or cobbles prevented the jaws of the ponar from closing in some 
areas. Representative macroinvertebrate samples could be 
collected from these substrates in the future using surface- 
supplied diving techniques. A diver could recover large rocks or 
artificial substrates, and attached epibenthos could then be 
removed and preserved by surface personnel. The diver should also 
use a downstream net to catch organisms dislodged by disturbance 
of the substrate. Where bedrock substrates are present, a diver 
could scrape epifauna into a Surber sampler. 

Benthic samples collected by ponar grab were to be processed 
by elutriation with a device modified from the design of Magdych 
(1981) to reduce subsequent processing time and loss and 
destruction of fragile specimens. However, the flocculent nature 
of the substrate in many samples, possibly caused by the presence 
of petroleum products in the sediments, prevented efficient use of 
this device, even though several design modifications were made. 

HABITAT SPECIFICITY 

Comparisons of macroinvertebrate faunas collected from 
different habitat types in summer 1985 show that distributions of 
several groups and species were highly habitat-specific (Tables 
10-12) . For example, the naidid worm Ophidonais serpentina was 
only collected from aquatic plants. The introduced Asiatic clam 
(Corbicula f luminea ) was collected only from the main channel in 
the lower end of the reach near the Will County Forest Preserve 
Island, and the only live fingernail clam ( Sphaerium sp.) was 
collected in the tailwaters below the Brandon Road Dam. 

Analysis of variance indicated significant differences in 
species evenness (P < 0.05) and diversity (P = 0.055) between main 
channel habitat (stations 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9) and channel border 
habitat (stations 10, 12, 13, 15, and 16) (Table 11). 

19 



DOMINANT TAXA: MIDGES (Chironomidae) 

The chironomids were the second most abundant organisms 
collected in the quantitative ponar samples (Table 11) . 
Tanypodine midges of the genera Procladius and Tanypus were most 
numerous. Both genera are predaceous, free-swimming "sprawlers." 
Their common foods are immature oligochaetes and smaller 
chironomids. The midge community from these samples was far from 
trophically balanced. 

Cricotopus bicinctus dominated both the Surber and macrophyte 
samples (Tables 10 and 12). This species' pollution tolerance is 
well documented. Cricotopus bicinctus is a tubiculous algavore 
that has the ability to reproduce rapidly (up to five generations 
per year) and to colonize disturbed areas quickly. The presence 
of petroleum products in sediments (as in the Des Plaines River) 
may promote the growth of algae upon which C. bicinctus feeds 
(Rosenberg and Weins 1976) . 

DOMINANT TAXA: WORMS (Annelida) 

The oligochaete worms numerically dominated Surber and ponar 
samples (Tables 11 and 12) . Although dipterans dominated the 
plant samples (Table 10) , oligochaetes were present, and one 
species, Nais variabilis , was abundant on the aquatic macrophyte 
Potamogeton pectinatus . 

In summer 1985, 21 taxa of aquatic annelids were collected 
from the lower Des Plaines River project area, including 12 taxa 
of Naididae, 9 taxa of Tubificidae, and 1 taxon of 
Branchiobdellidae (Tables 10-12) . In addition, one immature leech 
in the family Erpobdellidae was collected. 

Branchiobdellidae . The monotypic order Branchiobdellida 
(Holt 1955) consists of 5 families, 18 recognized genera, and 124 
nominal species: of these, 15 genera and 95 species occur in North 
America (Holt 1986) . These worms are known as epizoites, or 
commensal "parasites" on freshwater Holarctic crustaceans, 
primarily the astacoidean crayfishes. Other minor hosts include a 
freshwater crab, freshwater shrimp, cave isopods, the gill 
chambers of the marine crab Callinectes sapidus , and the 
freshwater snail Physa sp. 

Holt (1974) suggested that branchiobdellids are extremely 
intolerant to some inorganic pollutants such as coal-mine 
effluents and sulfates. Blackford (1966) demonstrated the 
tolerance of these worms to low oxygen concentrations, suggesting 
the possibility that they are facultative anaerobes. 

A generic key to the branchiobdellids is provided by Holt 
(1978) . Specific identification usually requires dissection 
and/or sectioning. At least one species in the genus Cambarincola 
was collected from the lower Des Plaines River in summer 1985. 

Naididae. Twenty-one genera and 70 nominal species of 
naidids are known to occur in North America (Brinkhurst 1986) . 



20 



Seven genera and 12 species of naidids were collected from the 
lower Des Plaines River in summer 1985 (Tables 10-12) . 

External morphological features including presence or absence 
of probosces, eyes, and gills, as well as number, type, and 
arrangement of chaetae were used for naidid identification. Loden 
and Harman (1980) discussed chaetotaxy, the problems encountered 
when chaetae are the primary characters used in identification, 
and ecophenotypic variation of species populations in relation to 
chaetal morphology. Elements of the branchial fossa are used to 
distinguish species within the genus Dero. However, these 
structures are naturally contractile, with fixation techniques 
often causing contraction at death. Three species in this genus 
were collected in summer 1985: Dero (Aulophorus) furcata 
(Muller) , Dero (Dero) digitata (Muller) , and Dero (Dero) nivea 
Aiyer; D. furcata and D. nivea represent new records for this 
drainage. 

Nais communis Piguet and N. variabilis Piguet often can be 
confused when poorly mounted. Nais pardalis Piguet and N. 
variabilis often have subtle differences among their chaetae. In 
summer 1985, four species in the genus Nais were collected: N. 
barbata Muller, N. communis Piguet, N. pardalis Piguet, and N. 
variabilis Piguet. 

One species of Chaetogaster , C. diaphanus (Gruithuisen) , was 
collected. One additional species, C. cristallinus Vejdovsky, 
considered by Brinkhurst (1986) to be synonymous with C. 
diaphanus , was collected by Ecological Analysts in 1984. 

Pristina leidyi Smith was the only member of this genus 
collected from the lower Des Plaines during summer collections. 
One additional species, P. unidentata Harman, was collected by 
Nalco in 1977. 

Four other naidids were collected during summer sampling: 
Ophidonais serpentina (Muller) , Paranais frici Hrabe, 
Stephensoniana trivandrana (Aiyer) , and Stylaria lacustris 
(Linnaeus) . Ophidonais serpentina was collected only from aquatic 
plant samples. Stephensoniana trivandrana represents a new record 
for the Des Plaines River. 

Specimens identified only to the familial level of Naididae 
consisted of individuals lacking clarity due to factors such as 
presence of a silt-sand tube, numerous incomplete chaetal bundles, 
or poorly oriented chaetae. 

Tubificidae. According to Brinkhurst (1986) , 19 genera and 
65 nominal species of this family are known to occur in North 
America. Four genera and eight known species were collected 
during summer 1985. 

The somatic chaetae and morphology of the male genitalia were 
the primary structures used for species identifications. The 
species Aulodrilus piguet Kowalewski and Quistadrilus multisetosus 
(Smith) were identifiable regardless of sexual maturity. Other 
species in the family Tubificidae collected during this study 
include: Ilyodrilus templetoni (Southern) , Limnodrilus cervix 
Brinkhurst, Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri Claparede, Limnodrilus 
maumeensis Brinkhurst and Cook, and Limnodrilus udekemianus 
Claparede. These species are identifiable only in the sexually 

21 



mature state. Immature tubificids were divided into two groups: 
unidentifiable immature without capilliform chaetae (UIW/OCC) , and 
unidentifiable immature with capilliform chaetae (UIW/CC) . 
Limnodrilus represents the largest and perhaps most complex and 
controversial genus in this family. Those specimens collected in 
summer 1985 and identified as Limnodrilus sp. possessed at least 
part of a penis sheath. Most often the observed character was 
either underdeveloped or partially obscured by gut content. 

Numerous specimens of Limnodrilus collected during this study 
possessed atypical penis sheaths, a phenomenon reported previously 
(Brinkhurst 1965, 1975, 1976; Hiltunen 1967, 1969a, 1969b, 1969c, 
1973; Kennedy 1969; Howmiller and Beeton 1970; Brinkhurst and 
Jamieson 1971; Cook and Johnson 1974; Howmiller 1974; Stimpson et 
al. 1975; Howmiller and Loden 1976; Loden 1977; Maciorowski et al. 
1977; Barbour et al . 1979; Spencer 1980; Whitley 1982). Although 
the morphological and systematic explanations for these variations 
are still unclear, the general observation has been that 
occurrence of morphological variations is positively correlated 
with increasing levels of organic and industrial pollution. 

The most common variation in Limnodrilus species observed in 
previous studies has been an intermediate between L. claparedianus 
and L. cervix . Limnodrilus claparedianus was not collected from 
the Des Plaines River during the summer 1985 sampling, nor was it 
collected during the 1977 study. Ecological Analysts (1984) , 
however, did report this species from the Des Plaines River. 

The most common Limnodrilus variant observed during the 
summer 1985 collections most closely resembled a hybridization of 
L. cervix and L. maumeensis . Although this variant has not been 
discussed in the literature, we are sure that this has been seen 
by others working with benthos from polluted waters. 

Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri is the most common tubificid in many 
aquatic habitats, especially in polluted sites. Indeed, it was 
the most abundant tubificid in 1977, 1984, and summer 1985 
collections. There has been considerable debate about the 
identity of a number of Limnodrilus species described by Eisen 
throughout the last century, particularly L. spiralis , also 
referred to as L. hof fmeisteri form spiralis (see papers listed 
above) . Brinkhurst (198 6) and others maintain that some character 
other than the normal characters used for identification needs to 
be used to sort out this problem, which may involve polyploidy and 
hybridization. Stimpson et al. (1982) maintain that the spiralis 
form is a distinct taxon because of apparent differences in 
ecological requirements (or tolerances) ; the spiralis form has 
been reported from a variety of habitats but generally was found 
to be most abundant in grossly polluted habitats, often attaining 
large population densities in the absence of typical L. 
hof fmeisteri . Many variants of L. hof fmeisteri also were observed 
in the 1985 collections; only a very few resembled the spiralis 
form. 

Only a few sexually mature specimens of Limnodrilus 
udekemianus were collected during this study. Kennedy (1969) and 
others maintain that the distinctive chaetae of this species 
separate it from all other members of the genus, allowing accurate 
identification in immature specimens. 



22 



FAUNAL COMPARISON OF THE DES PLAINES AND KANKAKEE RIVERS 

Previous studies have documented the diverse and relatively 
unimpacted macroinvertebrate communities of the Kankakee River 

(Warren 1981) . Although the Des Plaines River study area has 
benthic habitats similar to those of the Kankakee River, the 
macroinvertebrate communities of the two streams are dissimilar 

(Table 13) . Even though a smaller sieve size (300 ym.) was used to 
process summer 1985 collections from the Des Plaines River than 
Warren (1981) used on the Kankakee River, far fewer taxa were 
collected from the Des Plaines. If the same size sieves had been 
used, differences between the faunas of the two rivers probably 
would have been even greater. 

In large gravel — large cobble substrates of the Kankakee, the 
tube-building detritivorous heptageniids ( Chironomus , 
Glyptotendipes , and Dicrotendipes ) and the epibenthic algavorous 
hydropsychids ( Cricotopus and Orthocladius ) were typically 
abundant. These community components were rare in the Des 
Plaines: in fact, only a single immature hydropsychid specimen was 
collected from the entire study area. Predaceous species such as 
Procladius and Tanypus , typically less abundant in unimpacted 
streams, dominated the chironomid community of the Des Plaines. 

Clearly, factors other than substrate limit the invertebrate 
fauna in the Des Plaines River. The most likely factors include 
water quality (dissolved oxygen, toxic contaminants) , sediment 
quality (toxic contaminants attached to suspended or deposited 
sediment particles) , and food quality (toxic contamination or low 
food value of algae and detritus) . Even taxa clearly tolerant of 
adverse environmental conditions, such as Stenacron, 
Cheumatopsyche , and Caenis, were absent from the Des Plaines. 

Other factors which differ between the two rivers are the 
amount and type of boat traffic. The Des Plaines study reach is 
part of the Illinois Waterway and supports commercial barge 
traffic, while the Kankakee River has shallow rock shelves which 
limit even recreational craft. Wave wash, prop wash, and the 
water displaced by moving tows may suspend organisms or disturb 
their feeding. Resuspension of sediments may dilute the more 
nutritious seston below levels necessary for efficient processing 
by organisms and may increase the effects of toxic sediments. 

WINTER RESURVEY 

In January 1986, the three transects sampled May 1977 by 
Nalco and January 1984 by Ecological Analysts (Fig. 15) were 
resurveyed. The mean number of benthic macroinvertebrates 
collected ranged from 28 m~ (Site 2L, river mile 278) to 14,628 
m (Site IM, river mile 284) (Table 14) . Transects 1 and 3 had 
significantly higher mean total organisms (P = 0.014) and mean 
number of taxa (P = 0.001) than Transect 2 (Table 15). Three 
replicate samples at Site 2M produced a mean density of 2,015 m~ . 
Only two individuals (mean density = 28 m ) representing two taxa 
were collected in three petite ponar samples from Site 2L — the 

23 



site nearest the Mobil Oil Refinery dock (Appendix B, Tables B4 
and B6) . A strong petroleum odor was evident in sediments 
collected from sites 2M and 2L but was not detected in sediments 
from Site 2R or from transects 1 and 3 (Appendix C) . 

Of the 40 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa collected January 
1986 (Appendix B) , 14 had not been reported from these transects 
in previous studies (Nalco 1978, Ecological Analysts 1984) (Table 
16) or from the summer 1985 ponar collections of this study. The 
new taxa consisted of six naidids (five new genera) , an amphipod, 
a baetid mayfly, an odonate, an unidentifiable trichopteran, and 
four chironomid taxa. The tubificid Limnodrilus udekemianus was 
not collected in the January 198 6 resurvey even though it was 
reported in the two earlier surveys and in the summer ponar 
collections of this study. 

Table 17 shows that oligochaetes dominated mean transect 
densities in 1977, 1984, and 1986. In fact, they accounted for 
over 90% of the benthos, except for Transect 3 in 1986, when 
chironomids accounted for 41.2% of the benthic macroinvertebrate 
community. No trends were apparent when transect means for total 
benthos were compared among years (Table 17)._2ln 1977, Nalco 
reported their highest mean density (31,544 m ) on Transect 3 . 
Ecological Analysts found the highest mean density (9,411 m ) on 
Transect 1 in 1984. In 1986^ the highest mean transect density 
was on Transect 3 (12,477 m~ ), but the mean for Transect 1 was 
high as well (11,127 m" ) . It is noteworthy that this study 
identified more macroinvertebrate taxa from each transect than the 
previous two surveys (Table 17) . 

Tables 18-20 compare transect site means from 1984 and 1986. 
These tables do not include 1977 data as only two replicates were 
taken per sample and no exact location (i.e., mid-channel or 
channel border) was reported. As with the comparisons of transect 
means, no trends were apparent. 

SPECIES DIVERSITY 

Taxa diversity values (Shannon 1948) were calculated for 
ponar collections of July-August 1985_ (Table 11) and January 1986 
(Appendix B) . In summer, diversity (d) ranged from a low of 0.79 
in a backwater between the Will County Forest Preserve Island and 
a peninsula (Station 4, Fig. 14) to a high of 2.00 in the 
discharge channel of the Commonwealth Edison plant (Station 10, 
Fig. 12). The lowest diversity found in winter 1986 was 0.0 
(1 species) near the Mobil Refinery (Site 2L, Fig. 15), and the 
highest was 2.02 in the mid-channel collection upstream of the 
confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers (Site 3M, Fig. 
15). 

The equation of Shannon (1948) was used by both Ecological 
Analysts and INKS to calculate diversity values. However, 
diversity values recalculated by INKS using Ecological Analysts' 
1984 data do not correspond to their reported values, making 
direct comparisons suspect. Results of calculations using an INKS 
diversity program have agreed exactly with results from equations 
in standard biostatistical texts such as Zar (1974) . Therefore, 



24 



diversity values for Ecological Analysts' data were recalculated 
using the INKS diversity program (Tables 17-20) . 

According to Wilhm (1970) , diversity in unpolluted waters 
ranges from 3 to 4 , in moderately polluted waters from 1 to 3 , and 
is usually less than 1 in polluted waters. By these criteria, all 
benthic macroinvertebrate collections from the Des Plaines River 
during this study and in that of Ecological Analysts (1984) were 
indicative of polluted to moderately polluted conditions (Tables 
17-20, Appendix B) . 



ENDANGERED AND THREATENED AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATES 

None of the aquatic macroinvertebrates collected from the 
study reach of the lower Des Plaines River area in July-August 
1985 or January 1986 are listed as federally endangered (USDI 
1984a) nor are any currently under consideration for federal 
listing (USDI 1984b) . No official Illinois state list of 
endangered or threatened species of aquatic macroinvertebrates 
currently exists. 



25 



SUMMARY 



1. Comparisons of macroinvertebrate faunas collected from 
different habitat types in summer 1985 show the distributions of 
several groups and species were highly habitat-specific. 

2. Ponar grabs are inadequate for sampling macroinvertebrate 
communities of three major habitat types found in the Des Plaines 
River study reach — substrates composed of bedrock or large cobbles 
which are often found in main channel and channel border habitats, 
hard mud substrates in the Brandon Road Dam tailwaters, and 
aquatic macrophytes. 

3. Factors other than habitat limit macroinvertebrate communities 
in the lower Des Plaines River. Species commonly occurring in the 
Kankakee River did not occur in similar habitats in the Des 
Plaines, and some areas within the lower Des Plaines have 
exceptionally low species diversity and abundance (e.g., site 2L) . 
Suspect agents include toxicants in the water and sediments and 
disturbance by boat traffic. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. Evaluation of macroinvertebrate communities from all the major 
habitat types present in the study reach should be included in a 
long-term monitoring program. The lower Kankakee River should be 
monitored as well to provide a clean water reference site. 

2. Substrates consisting of bedrock or large cobbles, which often 
are found in main channel and channel border habitats, should be 
sampled by divers using modified Hess samplers or surber samplers. 
These same samplers should be used for macroinvertebrate 
collections in the tailwaters below Brandon Road Dam. The plant 
sampling technique described in this report should be used to 
characterize the distinctive macroinvertebrate communities 
associated with aquatic macrophytes. 

3. Research to determine the factors limiting macroinvertebrate 
communities in the study reach should be initiated. 



26 



LITERATURE CITED 



Ager, L.A. , and K.E. Kerce. 1970. Vegetational changes 

associated with water level stabilization in Lake Okeechobee, 
Florida. Proc. 24th Ann. Conf. S.E. Assoc. Game Fish Conrai. , 
pp. 338-351. 

Anderson, R.O. 1959. A modified floatation technique for sorting 
bottom fauna samples. Limnol. Oceanogr. 4:223-225. 

Anderson, R.V. , J.D. Ives, R.E. Whitton, and P.P. Tazik. 1986. 
The effects of macrophyte beds on macroinvertebrate 
communities and island development. Proc. Mississippi River 
Research Consortium, LaCrosse, WI . 

Austin, A., and R.A. Adams. 1978. Aerial color and color 

infrared survey of marine plant resources. Photogramm. Eng. 
Remote Sens. 44:469-480. 

Barbour, M.T., D.G. Cook, and R.S. Pomerantz. 1979. On the 

question of hybridization and variation in the oligochaete 
genus Limnodrilus . Paper presented at the 27th annual 
meeting of the North American Benthological Society, Erie, 
PA. 20 April. 

Barko, J.W. , M.S. Adams, and N.L. Clesceri. 1986. Environmental 
factors and their consideration in the management of 
submersed aquatic vegetation: a review. J. Aquat. Plant 
Manage. 24:1-10. 

Beal, E.O. 1977. A manual of marsh and aquatic vascular plants 
of North Carolina with habitat data. N.C. Ag. Res. Serv. 
Tech. Bull. 247. 

Beck, W.M., Jr., and E.C. Beck. 1969. Chironomidae (Diptera) of 
Florida. III. The Hamischia complex (Chironominae) . Bull. 
Florida St. Mus. 13:277-313. 

Bennett, G.W. 1971. Management of lakes and ponds. Van Nostrand 
Reinhold Co. , NY. 

Blackford, S. 1966. A study of certain aspects of the ecology 
and morphology of branchiobdellid annelids epizoic on 
Callinectes sapidus . Unpublished senior thesis, Newcomb 
College, Tulane University (as seen in Holt 1974) . 

Brigham, A.R., W.U. Brigham, and A. Gnilka, eds. 1982. Aquatic 
insects and oligochaetes of North and South Carolina. 
Midwest Aquatic Enterprises, Mahomet, IL. 837 pp. 

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1965. Studies on the North American aquatic 
Oligochaeta. II. Tubificidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia. 117 (4) : 117-172 . 



27 



Brinkhurst, R.O. 1975. Oligochaeta. Pages 69-85 in F.K. 

Parrish, ed. Keys to the water quality indicative organisms 
of the southeastern United States. U. S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, 
OH. 195 pp. 

1976. Aquatic Oligochaeta recorded from Canada and the 
St. Lawrence Great Lakes. Unpubl. manuscript, Inst. Ocean 
Sci., Patricia Bay, Victoria, B.C. 49 pp. 

1985. A guide to the aquatic Oligochaeta of North America, 
In preparation. 243 pp. 

1986. Guide to the freshwater aquatic microdrile 
oligochaetes of North America. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. 
Aquat. Sci. 84. 259 pp. 

, and B.G.M. Jamieson. 1971. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the 

world. Univ. Toronto Press, Buffalo, NY. 860 pp. 

, and M.J. Wetzel. 1984. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world: 

supplement. A catalogue of new freshwater species, 
descriptions, and revisions. Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean 
Sci. 101 pp. 

Burch, J.B. 1982. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of 
North America. EPA-600/3-82-026. U. S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, 
OH. 294 pp. 

Burks, B.D. 1953. The mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois. 
111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:1-216. 

Clark, W.R., R.T. Clay, and K.L. Johnson. 1983. Relationship of 
substrate and production of Sagittaria in the Upper 
Mississippi River. Unit Cooperative Agreement No. 14-16- 
0009-1504. Work Order No. 5, USFWS. 

Coffman, W.P., and L.C. Ferrington, Jr. 1984. Chironomidae. 
Chapter 25 in R. W. Merritt and K. W. Cummins, eds. An 
introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. 
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, lA. 722 pp. 

Cook, D.G., and M.G. Johnson. 1974. Benthic macroinvertebrates 
of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 
31:763-782. 

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. 
Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the 
United States. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Serv. Prog., 
FWS/OBS-79/31. 



28 



Cranston, P.S., D.R. Oliver, and O.A. Saether. 1983. The larvae 
of Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Holarctic 
region - keys and diagnoses. Pages 149-291 in T. Wiederholm, 
ed. Chironomidae of the Holarctic region. Ent. Scand. 
Suppl. 19. 

Dardeau, E.A. 1983. Aerial survey techniques to map and monitor 
aquatic plant populations — four case studies. Tech. Rep. A- 
83-1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 
Vicksburg, MS. 

Donnermeyer, G.N., and M.M. Smart. 1985. The biomass and 
nutritive potential of Vallisneria americana Michx. in 
Navigation Pool 9 of the Upper Mississippi River. Aquat. 
Bot. 22:33-44. 

Ecological Analysts. 1984. Des Plaines River benthic 
macroinvertebrate suirvey, January 1984. Report to 
Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago. 15 pp. 

Edmunds, G.F., Jr., S.L. Jensen, and L. Bemer. 1976. The 

mayflies of North and Central America. University of - 
Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN. 330 pp. 

Fassett, N.C. 1940. A manual of aquatic plants. McGraw-Hill _. 
Co., Inc., NY. 

Fittkau, E.J., and S.S. Roback. 1983. The larvae of Tanypodinae 
(Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Holarctic region - keys and 
diagnoses. Pages 33-110 in T. Wiederholm, ed. Chironomidae 
of the Holarctic region. Ent. Scand. Suppl. 19. 

Grace, J.B., and L.J. Tilly. 1976. Distribution and abundance of 
submerged macrophytes, including Myriophyllum spicatum L. 
(Angiospermae) , in a reactor cooling reservoir. Arch. 
Hydrobiol. 77:475-487. 

Haag, R.W. , and P.R. Gorham. 1977. Effects of thermal effluent 
on standing crop and net production of Elodea canadensis and 
other submerged macrophytes in Lake Wabamun, Alberta. J. 
Appl. Ecol. 14:835-885. 

Havera, S.P., F.C. Bellrose, H.K. Archer, F.L. Paveglio, Jr., D.W. 
Steffeck, K.S. Lubinski, R.E. Sparks, W.U. Brigham, L.C. 
Coutant, S. Waite, and D. McCormick. 1980. Projected 
effects of increased diversion of Lake Michigan water on the 
environment of the Illinois River valley. Report to U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District. 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv., Champaign, IL. 129 pp. 

Hilsenhoff, W.L. 1975. Aquatic insects of Wisconsin, with 

generic keys and notes on biology, ecology, and distribution. 
Tech. Bull. Wis. Dept. Nat. Res. 89:1-52. 

Hiltunen, J.K. 1967. Some oligochaetes from Lake Michigan. 
Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 86:433-454. 

2 9 



Hiltunen, J.K. 1969a. Invertebrate macrobenthos of western Lake 
Superior. Mich. Acad. 1:123-133. 

1969b. The benthic macrofauna of Lake Ontario. Great 
Lakes Fish. Comm. Tech. Rept. 14:39-50. 

1969c. Distribution of oligochaetes in western Lake Erie, 
1961. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14:260-264. 

1973. A laboratory guide. Keys to the tubificid and 
naidid Oligochaeta of the Great Lakes region. Great Lakes 
Fishery Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI. Unpublished. 2 4 pp. 

, and D.J. Klemm. 1980. A guide to the Naididae (Annelida: 

Clitellata: Oligochaeta) of North America. EPA-600/4-80-031. 
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Office of 
Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Cincinnati, OH. 

Hirvenoja, M. 1973. Revision der Gattung Cricotopus van der Wulp 
und ihner Verwandten (Diptera: Chironomidae) . Ann. Zool. 
Fenn. 10:1-363. 

Holcomb, D. , and W. Wegener. 1971. Hydrophytic changes related 
to lake fluctuation as measured by point transects. Proc. 
25th Ann. Conf. S.E. Assoc. Game Fish Comm., pp. 570-583. 

Holt, P.C. 1965. The systematic position of the 

Branchiobdellidae (Annelida: Clitellata). Syst. Zool. 
14:25-32. 

1974. The branchiobdellid (Annelida: Clitellata) 
associates of astacoidean crawfishes. Paper presented at the 
2nd International Crayfish Symposium, Baton Rouge, LA, 
April. 

1978. [Key to the genera of Branchiobdellida] . Pages 
292-295 in R. W. Pennak, ed. Fresh-water invertebrates of 
the United States, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY. 

1986. Newly established familites of the order 
Branchiobdellida (Annelida: Clitellata) with a synopsis of 
the genera. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 99 (4) : 676-702 . 

Howmiller, R.P. 1974. Studies on aquatic Oligochaeta in inland 
waters of Wisconsin. Trans. Wise. Acad. Sci. Arts Letts. 
62:337-356. 

, and A.M. Beeton. 1970. The oligochaete fauna of Green 

Bay, Lake Michigan. Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res. 13:15- 
46. 

, and M.S. Loden. 1976. Identification of Wisconsin 

Tubificidae and Naididae. Trans. Wise. Acad. Sci. Arts 
Letts. 64:185-197. 

30 



Hynes, H.B.N. 1970. The ecology of running waters. Univ. of 
Toronto Press, Toronto. 

Jackson, H.O., and W.C. Starrett. 1959. Turbidity and 

sedimentation at Lake Chautauqua, Illinois. J. Wildl. 
Manage. 23:157-168. 

Kennedy, C.R. 1969. The variability of some characters used for 
species recognition in the genus Limnodrilus Claparede 
(Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) . J. Nat. Hist. 3:53-60. 

Kershaw, K.A. 1973. Quantitative and dynamic plant ecology. 
American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc., NY. 

Klemm, D.J. 1982. Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) of North 

America. EPA-600/3-82-025 . Environmental Monitoring and 
Support Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. 177 pp. 

, D.G. Huggins, and M.J. Wetzel. 1979. Kansas leeches, 

(Annelida: Hirudinea) with notes on distribution and 
ecology. Tech. Publ. St. Biol. Surv. Kansas 8:38-46. 

Leonard, J.M. 1984. Handbook for obtaining and using aerial 

photography to map aquatic plant distribution. Instruction 
Rep. A-84-2, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 
Vicksburg, MS. 

Loden, M.S. 1977. Two new species of Limnodrilus (Oligochaeta: 
Tubificidae) from the southeastern United States. Trans. 
Amer. Micros. Soc. 96:321-326. 

, and W.J. Harman. 1980. Ecophenotypic variation in setae of 

Naididae (Oligochaeta) . Pages 33-40 in R. O. Brinkhurst and 
D. G. Cook, eds. Aquatic oligochaete biology. Plenum Press, 
NY. 

Long, K.S. 1979. Remote sensing of aquatic plants. Tech. Rep. 
A-79-2. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 
Vicksburg, MS. 

Maciorowski, A.F., E.F. Benfield, and A.C. Hendricks. 1977. 
Species composition, distribution, and abundance of 
oligochaetes in Kanawha River, West Virginia. Hydrobiologia 
54:81-91. 

Magdych, W.P. 1981. An efficient, inexpensive elutriator design 
for separating benthos from sediment samples. Hydrobiologia 
85:157-159. 

Mills, H.B., W.C. Starrett, and F.C. Bellrose. 1966. Man's effect 
of the fish and wildlife of the Illinois River. 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes 57. 24 pp. 



31 



Moran, R.L. 1981. Aquatic macrophytes in Lake Sangchris. Pages 
394-412 in R.W. Larimore and J. A. Tranquilli, eds. The 
Lake Sangchris study: case history of an Illinois cooling 
lake. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 32. 

Mueller-Dombois, D. , and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of 
vegetation ecology. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 

Muenscher, W.C. 1944. Aquatic plants of the United States. 
Comstock Publishing Co., Inc., Ithaca, NY. 

Nalco Environmental Sciences. 1978. Des Plaines River ecosystem 
evaluation, May-August 1977. Report to Commonwealth Edison 
Co., Chicago. 190 pp. 

Page, L.M. 1974. Aquatic Malacostraca recorded for Illinois, 
with notes on their distributions and habitats within the 
state. Trans. 111. St. Acad. Sci. 67:89-104. 

1985. The crayfishes and shrimps (Decapoda) of Illinois. 
111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 33:1-448. 

Pennak, R.W. 1978. Freshwater invertebrates of the United 
States. Ronald Press, NY. 769 pp. 

Pielou, E.C^[. 1966. The measurement of diversity in different 

types of biological collections. J. Theor. Biol. 13:131-144. 

Pinder, L.C.U., and F. Reiss. 1983. The larvae of Chironominae 
(Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Holartic region - keys and 
diagnoses. Pages 293-435 in T. Wiederholm, ed. Chironomidae 
of the Holarctic region - keys and diagnoses. Ent. Scand. 
Suppl. 19. 

Raschke, R.L. 1978. Macrophyton. Pages 39-50 in W.T. Mason, ed. 
Methods for the assessment and prediction of mineral mining 
impacts on aquatic communities: a review and analysis. U.S. 
Fish Wildl. Biol. Serv. Prog., FWS/OBS-78/30. 

Rasmussen, J.L. 1979. Description of the Upper Mississippi 

River. Pages 3-20 in R.L. Rasmussen, ed. A compendium of 
fishery information on the Upper Mississippi River. Upper 
Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, IL. 
259 pp. 

Reynolds, J.W. , and D.G. Cook. 1976. Nomenclatura 

Oligochaetologica. A catalogue of names, descriptions and 
type specimens of the Oligochaeta. Univ. New Brunswick, 
Fredericton, New Brunswick. 217 pp. 

, and D.G. Cook. 1981. Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica. 

Supplementum primum. A catalogue of names, descriptions and 
type specimens of the Oligochaeta. Univ. New Brunswick, 
Fredericton, New Brunswick. 39 pp. 



32 



Richardson, R.E. 1921. The small bottom and shore fauna of the 
middle and lower Illinois River and its connecting lakes, 
Chillicothe to Grafton: its valuation; its sources of food 
supply; and its relation to the fishery. 111. St. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 15:327-352. 

Roback, S.S. 1977. The immature chironomids of the eastern 

United States. II. Tanypodinae-Tanypodini. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. 128:55-87. 

Rosenberg, D.M. , and A. P. Wiens. 1976. Community and species 

responses of Chironomidae (Diptera) to contamination of fresh 
water by crude oil and petroleum products, with special 
reference to the Trail River, Northwest Territories. J. 
Fish. Res. Board Can. 33:1955-1963. 

Ross, H.H. 1944. The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. 
111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:1-326. 

Sculthorpe, CD. 1967. The biology of aquatic vascular plants. 
Ed. Arnold Publishers, Ltd., London. 

Shannon, C.E. 1948. A mathematical theory of communication. 
Bell System Tech. J. 27:379-423, 623-656. 

Simpson, K.W. , and R.W. Bode. 1980. Common larvae of > 

Chironomidae (Diptera) from New York State streams and 
rivers, with particular reference to the fauna of artificial 
substrates. Bull. N. Y. St. Mus. 439:1-105. 

Soponis, A.R. 1977. A revision of the Nearctic species of 
Orthocladius ( Orthocladius ) van der Wulp (Diptera: 
Chironomidae). Mem. Entomol . Soc. Canada 102:1-187. 

Sparks, R.E. 1984. Ecological structure and function of major 

rivers in Illinois, "Large River LTER" . Aq. Biol. Tech. Rep. 
1984(8). 111. Nat. Hist. Surv., Champaign. 

Spencer, D.R. 1980. The aquatic Oligochaeta of the St. Lawrence 
Great Lakes region. Pages 115-164 in R. O. Brinkhurst and D. 
G. Cook, eds. Aquatic oligochaete biology. Plenum Press, 
NY. 

Stimpson, K.S., J.R. Brice, M.T. Barbour, and P. Howe. 1975. 

Distribution and abundance of inshore oligochaetes in Lake 
Michigan. Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 94:384-394. 

Stimpson, K.S., D.J. Klemm, and J.K. Hiltunen. 1982. A guide to 
the freshwater Tubificidae (Annelida: Clitellata: 
Oligochaeta) of North America. EPA-600/3-82-033 . U.S. EPA, 
Cincinnati, OH. 61 pp. 



33 



Swadener, S.O. 1978. Benthic communities of the Kankakee River. 
Pages 3-1 to 3-26 in R.W. Larimore and M.J. Sule, eds. 
Construction and preoperational aquatic monitoring programs 
for the Kankakee River Braidwood Stations. First Annual 
Report, 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. to Commonwealth Edison Co., 
Chicago. 

1979. Macroinvertebrates collected by benthic grabs from 
the Kankakee River and Horse Creek during 1978. Pages 3-1 to 
3-142 in R.W. Larimore and M.J. Sule, eds. Construction and 
preoperational aquatic monitoring programs for the Kankakee 
River Braidwood Stations. Second Annual Report, the 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. to Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago. 

1980. Macroinvertebrates collected by benthic grabs from 
the Kankakee River and Horse Creek during 1979. Pages 3-1 to 
3-47 in R.W. Larimore and M.J. Sule, eds. Construction and 
preoperational aquatic monitoring programs for the Kankakee 
River Braidwood Stations. Third Annual Report, 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. to Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago. 

Tazik, P.P., and M.J. Wiley. 1985. Aquatic macrophyte 

investigations of Braidwood and LaSalle cooling ponds in 
1984. Aq. Biol. Tech. Rep. 1985(4). 111. Nat. Hist. Surv., 
Champaign. 

U. S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service 
[USDI]. 1984a. Endangered and threatened wildlife and 
plants. 50 CFR 17.11 and 17.12. July 20, 1984. 24 pp. 

1984b. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; 
Review of invertebrate wildlife for listing as endangered and 
threatened species. Federal Register 49(100) (Part 
III) :21664-21675. 

Warren, G.L. 1981. Benthic investigations of the Kankakee River 
and Horse Creek. Pages 3-1 to 3-47 in R.W. Larimore and T.M. 
Skelly, eds. Kankakee River aquatic monitoring programs for 
Braidwood Station, August 1981. Annual report. 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. to Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago. 

Westlake, D.F. 1963. Comparisons of plant productivity. Biol. 
Rev. 38:385-425. 

1967. Some effects of low-velocity currents on the 
metabolism of aquatic macrophytes. J. Exp. Bot. 18:187-205. 

1973. Aquatic macrophytes in rivers. A review. Pol. 
Arch. Hydrobiol. 20:31-40. 

Wetzel, M.J. 1981. The distribution and relative abundance of 

aquatic Oligochaeta in the upper Cache River basin, southern 
Illinois, in relation to water quality. Unpubl. M.S. thesis. 
Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston. 182 pp. 



34 



Wetzel, M.J. 1982a. Aquatic Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) 
in Kansas, with notes on their distribution and ecology. 
Tech. Publ. St. Biol. Surv. Kansas 12:112-130. 

1982b. Kansas leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) with notes on 
distribution and ecology. II. Tech. Publ. St. Biol. Surv. 
Kansas 12:105-111. 

1987a. The aquatic leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) of 
Illinois. I. A preliminary checklist and review of 
pertinent literature. In preparation. 

1987b. The aquatic Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) of 
Illinois. II. A preliminary checklist and review of 
pertinent literature. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes. In 
preparation. 

, F.C. Gilbert, and M.B. DuBois. 1981. Introduction to the 

non-arthropod group. Pages 4-8 in D.G. Huggins, P.M. 
Liechti, and L.C. Ferrington, eds. Guide to the freshwater 
invertebrates of the Midwest. Tech. Publ. St. Biol. Surv. 
Kansas No. 11. 

Whitley, L.S. 1982. Aquatic Oligochaeta. Pages 2.1-2.29 in A.R. 
Brigham, W.U. Brigham, and A. Gnilka, eds. Aquatic insects 
and oligochaetes of North and South Carolina. Midwest 
Aquatic Enterprises, Mahomet, IL. 

Wiggins, G.B. 1977. Larvae of the North American caddisfly 
genera. Univ. Toronto Press, Toronto. 401 pp. 

Wiley, M.J., and R.W. Gorden. 1984. Biological control of 

aquatic macrophytes by herbivorous carp. Part II. Biology 
and ecology of herbivorous carp. Aq. Biol. Tech. Rep. 
1984(11). 111. Nat. Hist. Surv., Champaign. 

Wilhm, J.L. 1970. Range of diversity index in benthic 

macroinvertebrate populations. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 
42(5, Part 2) :R221-R224. 

Williams, W.D. 1972. Freshwater isopods (Asellidae) of North 
America. U.S. Environ. Prot. Ag. Biota of Freshwater 
Ecosystems Identification Manual No. 7:1-45. 

Wright, J.F., P.D. Hiley, S.F. Ham, andA.D. Berrie. 1981. 

Comparison of three mapping procedures developed for river 
macrophytes. Freshw. Biol. 11:369-379. 

Zar, J.H. 1974. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 620 pp. 



35 



Table 1. Vascular plant taxa in the Des Plaines River, Grundy and 
Will counties, Illinois, in 1985. Plant growth forms are 
rooted (R) , submersed (S) , emersed (E) , aquatic (A) , 
terrestrial (T) , floating (F) , and floating-leaved (FL) . 



Scientific Name 



Common Name 



Plant 
Growth Form 



Calamagrostis 
Ceratophyllum demersum L. 
Dianthera americana L. 
Eleocharis acicularis (L.)R« St S. 
Elodea canadensis (Michx. ) Planchon 

Gramineae 

Myriophyllum sp. 

Nelumbo lutea (Wild.) Pers. 

Phraqmites communis Trin. 

Polygonum sp. 

Potamogeton crispus L. 

Potamogeton pectinatus L. 
Potamogeton zosteriformis Fernald. 

Potamogeton sp. (floating-leaved) 

Sagittaria latifolia L. 
Scirpus fluviatilis (Torr.) Gray 
Scirpus validus Vahl. 
Typha angustifolia L. 

Typha latifolia L. 
Vallisneria americana (Michx.) 



Reed bentgrass 


R T 


Coontail 


F A 


Water willow 


R E A 


Needle rush 


R E A 


American elodea 
or waterweed 


R S A 


Grass family 


R T 


Water milfoil 


R S A 


American lotus 


R FL A 


Reed grass 


R E A 


Smartweed 


R T 


Curlyleaf 
pondweed 


R S A 


Sago pondweed 


R S A 


Flatstem 
pondweed 


R S A 


Floating-leaved 
pondweed 


R FL A 


Common arrowhead 


R E A 


River bulrush 


R E A 


American bulrush 


R E A 


Narrowleaf 
cattail 


R E A 


Common cattail 


R E A 


Eelgrass 


R S A 



36 



Table 2 . Relative abundance of macrophyte species in selected 

segments of the Des Plaines River study reach, Grundy and 
Will counties, Illinois, during 1985. Values reflect 
results of transect analyses. 



RIVER SEGMENTS 



Macrophyte 
species 


Brandon 
Road 


Mouth of 
Du Page 
River 


Confluence of 
Des Plaines and 
Kankakee rivers 


Ceratophyllum demersum 


0.00 


0.02 


0.00 




Vallisneria americana 


0.00 


0.39 


0.33 




Myriophyllum sp. 


0.19 


0.24 


0.00 




Potamogeton sp. 


0.14 


0.07 


0.03 


^_ 


Potamogeton pectinatus 


0.20 


0.26 


0.31 


■ - 


Potamogeton crispus 


0.38 


0.02 


0.33 




Eleocharis acicularis 


0.09 


0.00 


0.00 


V 



1.00 



1.00 



1.00 



37 



Table 3. Aquatic macrophyte cover in the 13-mile Des Plaines 

River study reach, Grundy and Will counties, Illinois, 
during 1985. Cover is expressed as a percentage of the 
total vegetated area and as a percentage of submersed 
and emersed plant populations. Floating-leaved and 
floating vegetation are included in the submersed 
macrophyte totals. 



Macrophytes 



Percentage Percentage Percentage 
Cover submersed emersed total 
(ha) population population population 



Submersed 
Ceratophyllum demersum 
Vallisneria americana 
Myriophyllum sp. 
Nelumbo lutea 
Potamogeton sp. 
Potamogeton pectinatus 
Potamogeton crispus 
Potamogeton zosteriformis 
Eleocharis acicularis 
Submersed subtotal 

Emersed 
Typha spp. 

Sagittaria latifolia 
Phragmites communis 
Scirpus spp. 
Dianthera americana 
Emersed subtotal 

TOTAL 



0.38 


1.2 


3.70 


11.9 


5.35 


17.2 


0.47 


1.5 


3.50 


11.2 


5.74 


18.4 


10.72 


34.5 


0.26 


0.8 


1.01 


3.3 


31.13 


— 


3.03 


— 


11.88 


— 


0.13 


~ 


0.11 


— 


0.02 


~ 


15.17 


— 


46.30 


100.0 



0.82 

7.99 

11.56 

1.02 

7.56 

12.40 

23.15 

0.56 

2.18 



20.0 


6.54 


78.3 


25.70 


0.9 


0.30 


0.7 


0.20 


0.1 


0.10 


— 


— 


00.0 


100.00 



38 






5! E 

<U 3 



^ E 



■g. ^ 



O -4- 



«- ,- O 



O r- 



«- O 



O >- 



O ■r- 



I l 

I I 

> 'Z 

J > 


a 

i 
1 


3 


d 
1 


C 
1 


1 
g 

1 


1 

N 

o 


1- 

3 



39 



f«1 >- 



»- (M 



01 0) O 



(U <U C 



01 01 ^ 



a — 
o u 



i 

5 


s 

<- 

i 

I- 

> 


d 

1 
> 

I 




d 
o 


1 
§ 

1 

o 
a. 


1 

g 

o 
a. 


1 

o 

n 

01 

1 

S 

o 
a. 


1 


Typha spp. 
Sagittaria latifolia 



40 



Table 6. Total surface areas and vegetated areas for study reach 
segments in the Des Plaines River, Grundy and Will 
counties, Illinois, in 1985. Number in parentheses is 
surface area within water boundary lines (see Figures 
3-10) . Segment 8 does not include area downstream of 
river mile 273. All measurements are in hectares. 





Surface area 
of water 




Vegetated area 


Percer 

surfac 

vege 


itage of 


Segment 


Submersed 


Emersed 


Total 


:e area 
itated 


1 


66 


(31) 


12.12 




1.02 


13.14 


19.9 


(35.8) 


2 


88 




0.10 




1.82 


1.92 


2.2 




3 


78 




0.00 




2.14 


2.14 


2.7 




4 


71 


(23) 


0.22 




8.84 


9.06 


12.8 


(39.4) 


5 


165 


(141) 


11.96 




0.80 


12.76 


7.7 


(9.0) 


6 


110 




0.10 




0.10 


0.20 


0.2 




7 


73 


(26) 


0.71 




0.26 


0.97 


1.3 


(3.7) 


8 


42 


(39) 


5.92 




0.19 


6.11 


14.5 


(15.7) 



41 



Table 7. Biomass and cover estimates for aquatic macrophytes in 

the study reach in the Des Plaines River, Grundy and Will 
counties, Illinois, in 1985. The submersed group includes 
floating and floating-leaved vegetation. 



Macrophyte 
species 



Num±)er of 
samples 



g fresh 
wt. m 



(ha) 



Total kg 
biomass 



Submersed 
Ceratophyllum demersum 
Vallisneria americana 
Myriophyllum sp. 
Nelumbo lutea 
Potamogeton sp. 
Potamogeton pectinatus 
Potamogeton crispus 
Potamogeton zosterif ormis 

Emersed 
Typha spp. 

Sagittaria latifolia 
Phraomites communis 



3 


150.9 


12.8 


0.38 


49 


6 


4,079.0 


195.8 


3.70 


7,245 


7 


2,340.0 


252.7 


5.35 


13,519 


3 


229.9 


21.2 


0.47 


100 


5 


715.6 


67.3 


3.50 


2,356 


7 


701.6 


80.0 


5.74 


4,592 


3 


478.4 


35.4 


10.72 


3,795 


7 


2,411.6 


231.5 


0.26 


602 



Submersed total 



32,258 



4 


11,634.8 


1,035.5 




3.03 


31, 


,376 


.5 


9,894.8 


712.4 




11.88 


84, 


,633 


3 


11,046.4 


3,612.2 

Emersed tot 


:al 


0.13 


4, 


,696 




120, 


,705 






Total 






152 


,963 



Table 8. Classification of the Des Plaines study reach (river 
mile 273 - 286) according to Cowardin et al . (1979). 



Riverine Palustrine 



SUBSYSTEM Upper Perennial, Lower Perennial 



CLASS Aquatic Bed Emergent Wetland Emergent Wetland 



SUBCLASS Rooted Floating Nonpersistent Persistent 
Vascular Vascular 



Table 9. Habitat types and sampling devices used for aquatic 

macroinvertebrate samples collected from the Des Plaines 
River study reach, Grundy and Will counties, Illinois, 
30 July through 7 August 1985. 



Site 
no. 


River 
mile 


Sample 
date 


Habitat 
type 


Water 
depth 


Sam.pling 
device 


2 


277.0 


30 


July 


main channel 


Im 


ponar 


3 


277.2 


30 


July 


main channel border 


0.3m 


ponar 


4 


275.8 


30 


July 


slough 


Im 


ponar 


5 


275.8 


30 


July 


main channel 


4.2m 


ponar 


7 


285.2 


31 


July 


main channel border 


3.4m 


ponar 


8 


285.1 


31 


July 


main channel 


3.8m 


ponar 


9 


284.6 


31 


July 


main channel border 


im 


ponar 


10 


284.6 


31 


July 


side channel 


3m 


ponar 


12 


279.8 ' 


31 


July 


side channel border 
(along Saqittaria bed) 


Im 


ponar 


13 


279.8 


31 


July 


side channel 


im 


ponar 


15 


279.8 


31 


July 


side channel border 
(in Saqittaria bed) 


0.4m 


ponar 


16 


275.8 


31 


July 


side channel 


0.4m 


ponar 


17 


274.6 


31 


July 


tributary 


0.5m 


ponar 


20 


285.5 


2 . 


August 


tailwaters/riffle 


0.2m 


Surber 


21 


285.5 


7 . 


August 


tailwaters/riffle 


0.3m 


Surber 


22 


274.6 


31 


July 


macrophyte ... 
(CeratoDhvllum demersum) 


hand sampler 


23 


285.5 


2 . 


August 


macrophyte 
(Potamoaeton crispus) 




hand sampler 


24 


274.6 


31 


July 


macrophyte 
(Potamogeton pectinatus) 


hand sampler 


25 


277.2 


31 


July 


macrophyte 
(Vallisneria americana 


0.3m 
) 


hand sampler 



Table 10. Aquatic macroinvertebrates collected qualitatively during July 
and August 1985 from the Des Plaines River study area in 
Will County, Illinois, from four species of aquatic macrophytes, 



Ceratophyllum Potamoqeton Potamogeton Vallisn^ri; 
Macromvertebrate species demersum crispus pectinatus americana 



Aschelminthes 
Cnidaria 
Kydrozoa 
Hydroida 
Hydridae 

Hydra sp. ++ 

Platyhelminthes 
Turbellaria 
Tricladida 
Planar-iidae 

Duqesia sp. ' +■ 

Annelida 

Oligochaeta 
Haplotaxida 
Naidiae 

Dero nivea + 

Nais variabilis 

* Ophidonais serpentina + 
Pristina leidyi + 
Stylaria lacustris 

Tubif icidae 

Aulodrilus pigueti 
UIW/OCC + 

Hirudinea 

Rhychobdellida 
Glossiphoniidae 

Helobdella stagnalis + 

Arthropoda 
Crustacea 
Amphipoda 
Talitridae 

* Hyalella azteca 

Insecta 
Odonata 
Zygoptera 

* Coenagrionidae (immature) ++H 

* Ischnura sp. + 



Table 10 concluded, 



Ceratophylluin Potamogeton Potamoqeton Vallisneria 
Macroinvertebrate species demersum crispus pectinatus aroericana 



Trichoptera 

Hydropsychidae (immature) - + - 

Coleoptera 
Gyrinidae 

* Dineutes sp. + 
Haliplidae 

* Peltodytes edentulus + - - 

Diptera 

Ceratopogonidae 

Palpomyia complex + - - 

Chironoinidae 
Chironominae 
Chironoitiini 
* Endochironomus nigricans + - - 

C-lyptotendipes sp. ++++ + +++ 

Parachironomus nr. alatus + - ++ 

Orthocladiinae 

Cricotopus sp. + - - 

Cricotopus bicinctus + ++++ ++ 

* Cricotopus elegans - - - 
Cricotopus sylvestris + ++ +++H 
Nanocladius sp. +++ + + 



= taxa collected only from qualitative plant samples, not present 

in quantitative benthic samples. 
= present (less than 5 individuals per sample) 
= rare (5-20 individuals per sample) 
= common (21-50 individuals per sample) 
= abundant (more than 51 individuals per sample) 



^ I 

I I 



o- 3 



3 Z 



^ i 



i\ i 



n 






5 








O 




















c 






J 




1 


■~ 


,_ 




% 






-c 


£ 




£ 


3 










^ 








D 




S 


=> 




E 




- 


^ 






1 




o 




2 


j; 


g 


i 


." 


J 


':: 




5 



I a I 

I I II 



g ? 



a. S. i 



Table 12. Aquatic macroinvertebrates collected by Surber sainpler during July 

and August 1985 from the Des Plaines River study area in Will 

County, Illinois. NuirJbers per square meter (percent composition) 
are noted for each taxon. 

Station 20 Station 21 
Species Replicate 1 Replicate 3 

Aschelminthes 

Nematoda (unidentified) 2,475 (3.08) 

Cnidaria 
Hydrazoa 
Hydroida 
Hydridae 
Hydra sp. 269 (0.33) 968 (2.51) 

Platyhelminthes 
Turbellaria 
Tricladida 
Planariidae 

Dugesia sp. 3,927 (4.88) 3,013 (7.82) 

Rhabdocoela (unidentified) 

Ectoprocta + 

Annelida ■ 

Branchiobdellida 
Branch iobdellidae 

Cambarincola sp. - 753 (1.95) 

Oligochaeta 
Haplotaxida 
Naididae 

Chaetoqaster diaphanus 

Dero digitata 

Dero furcata 

Dero nivea 

Nais barbata 

Nais communis 

Nais pardalis 

Nais variabilis 

Pristina leidyi 

Stylaria lacustris 

Tubif icidae 

Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 

Quistadrilus m.ultisetosus 

UIW/OCC * 

UIW/CC ** - - 

Total Oligochaeta 66,131 (82.26) 14,203 (37.87) 

Annelida 
Hirudinea 

Erpobdellidae (unidentified) - 215 (0.56) 



3 


,764 


(4.68) 


3 


,981 


(10.33) 


5 


,377 


(6.69) 








4 


,839 


(6.02) 






- 










968 


(2.51) 






- 


2 


,475 


(6.42) 






- 




323 


(0.84) 






- 




646 


(1.68) 






- 


1 


,614 


(4.19) 


4, 


,301 


(5.35) 


1, 


,722 


(4.47) 






- 




215 


(0.56) 


1, 


,075 


(1.34) 




430 


(1.12) 


6, 


,452 


(8.03) 




533 


(1.40) 


1, 


,075 


(1.34) 








9, 


,243 


(48.82) 


1, 


,291 


(3.35) 



Table 12 continued 



Station 20 
Replicate 1 



Station 21 
Replicate 3 



Arthropoda 
Crustacea 
Isopoda 
Asellidae 
Asellus sp. 

Decapoda 
Caniiaridae 

Orconectes virilis 

Insecta 

Ephemeroptera 
Baetis sp. 

Odonata 
Zygoptera 
Coenagrionidae 
(immature) 

Trichoptera 

Hydropsychidae 
(immature) 
Hydroptilidae 
Hydroptila sp. 

Coleoptera 
Elmidae 

Stenelmis sp. 

Diptera 

Ceratopogonidae 
Palpomyia group 

Chironomidae 
Tanypodinae 
Pentaneurini 

Thienemannimyia group 
Procladiini 

Procladius sp. 

Chironominae 
Chironomini 
Chironomus sp. 
Dicrotendipes sp. 
Dicrotendipes neomodestus 
Dicrotendipes nervosus Type II 
Parachironoraus nr. monochromus 
Polypedilum sp. 



54 (0.07) 



54 (0.07) 



54 (0.07) 

215 (0.27) 

54 (0.07) 

54 (0.07) 

108 (0.13) 

54 (0.07) 



10,868 (28.21) 

215 (0.56) 

108 (0.28) 

108 (0.28) 

108 (0.28) 
108 (0.23) 



323 (0.84) 

108 (0.28) 

108 (0.23) 

215 (0.56) 

323 (0.84) 



53 



Table 12 concluded 



Station 20 Station 21 
Species Replicate 1 Replicate 3 

Orthocladiinae 

Cricotopus sp. 54 (0.07) 108 (0.28) 

Cricotopus bicinctus 5,918 (7.36) 3,658 (9.50) 

Cricotopus sylvestris 215 (0.27) 430 (1.12) 

Nanocladius sp. 699 (0.87) 538 (1.40) 

Orthocladius/Cricotopus 54 (0.07) 

Total Chironomidae 7,479 (9.30) 5,811 (15.08) 

Mollusca 
Gastropoda 

Basommatophora 
Ancylidae 

Ferrissia sp. - 861 (2.24) 

Pelecypoda 

Sphaeriidae _ 1,184 (3.07) 

(unidentified) 

Total nuiTiber of individuals 
Total taxa 
Taxa diversity 
Taxa evenness 

* = unidentified immature specimens without capilliform chaetae 
** = unidentified immature specimens with capilliform chaetae 



0,369 


38,523 


21 


28 


2.26 


2.52 


0.74 


0.75 



54 



Table 13 . Comparison of the number of key taxonomic or 

functional groups on natural substrates sampled by a 
ponar grab sampler in the Des Plaines and Kankakee 
rivers in Illinois. 



River 


Des Plaines 




Kankakee 




Year 


1985 


1981 


1979 


1978 


1977 


No. samples 


13 


24 


24 


24 




No. sites 


13 


8 


8 


8 


8 


Total tax-a 


29 


83 


79 


98 


80 


Oligochaeta 


13 


7 


8 


6 


b 


Ephemeroptera 


1 


9 


9 


10 


8 


Heptaeniidae 





3 


3 


3 


4 " 


Trichoptera 





5 


4 


12 


11 


Hydropsychidae 





2 


1 


1 


3 


Chironomidae 


13 


22 


16 


24 


17 



Sources: Swadener (1978, 1979, 1980); Warren (1981) 
Oligochaeta not identified to species in this study. 



e s 
|l 

o 5 

% 1 






SJ ;l I 






SI Y 



ifiable 
J ianus 


'I 


'hJ ■- 


1 1 


1 ■; 


I 


\ 


1 




-a 1 


3| -i 


i 






•5 


3 i\ - 


z 


I 


1 


1 


1 




1 






g D^ z 



I £ I r a 



iii Jllili 






ut 



^1 



! i 



in n ?. 






5 § 



of aquatic macroinvertebrates collected by petite ponar dredge 
from the lower Des Plaines River, on 16 January 1986. 



Transect 1 Transect 2 Transect 3 
(PJ-1284) (RK278) (RM273.5) 



Taxa (%) (%) (%) 

Aschelminthes 

Nematoda 125.1 36.7 23.1 23.1 9.3 6.2 

(1.1) (0.5) (0.1) 

Annelida 

Oligochaeta 

Znchytraeidae (unidentifiable) 4.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

* (0.0) (0.0) 

Naididae (unidentifiable) 310.2 57.2 152.8 127.8 92.8 42.1 

(2.8) (3.1) (0.7) 

Amphichaeta leydigi 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.7 4.7 

(0.0) (0.0) * 

Bratislavia unidentata 4.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

* (0.0) (0.0) 

Dero (unidentifiable) 

Dero digitata 

Dero furcata 

Dero nivea 

Nais (unidentifiable) 23.2 18.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 

(0.2) (0.0) (0.0) 

Nais barbata 
Nais cc-r-.unis 
Nais pardalis 



27.8 
(0.2) 


27.8 


0.0 
(0.0) 


0.0 


4.7 


4.7 


69.4 
(0.6) 


46.1 


0.0 
(0.0) 


0.0 


27.8 
(0.2) 


19.7 


18.6 
(0.2) 


10.1 


0.0 
(0.0) 


0.0 


0.0 
(0.0) 


0.0 


171.3 
(1.5) 


68.6 


9.2 
(0.2) 


9.2 


23.1 
(0.2) 


12.2 



13.9 


9.8 


9.3 


6.2 


0.0 


0.0 


(0.1) 




(0.2) 




(0.0) 




41.7 


32.6 


0.0 


0.0 


27.8 


23.0 


(0.4) 




(0.0) 




(0.2) 




13.9 


9.8 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


(0.1) 




(0.0) 




(0.0) 





Table 15 continued 



32.4 


32.4 


4.7 


4.7 


23.1 


15.7 


(0.3) 




(0.1) 




(0.2) 




0.0 


0.0 


4.7 


4.7 


0.0 


0.0 


(0.0) 




(0.1) 




(0.0) 





Transect 1 Transect 2 Transect 3 
(R:-t2 84) (R.M278) (P^M273.5) 



Taxa (%) (%) (%) 

Nais variabilis 

Haer-onais waldvogeli 

Oohidonais serpentina 14.0 7.0 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 

(0.1) (0.1) * 

Paranais frici 37.1 19.0 393.1 260.1 518.5 209.1 

(0.3) (8.0) (4.2) 

Pristinella osborni 23.2 18.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

(0.2) (0.0) (0.0) 

Slavina appendiculata 9.2 9.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

(0.1) (0.0) (0.0) 

Stylaria lacustris 4.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

* (0.0) (0.0) 

Tubif icidae 

Aulodrilus pigueti 944.7 465.7 296.4 191.0 689.8 181.5 

(8.5) (6.0) (5.5) 

Ilyodrilus templetoni 78.9 35.1 180.7 93.7 319.4 91.1 

(0.7) (3.6) (2.6) 

Limnodrilus (unidentifiable) 60.3 29.6 32.4 19.4 46.3 14.6 

(0.5) (0.7) (0.4) 

Limnodrilus cervix 111.1 47.1 69.4 29.5 157.5 32.5 

(1.0) (1.4) (1.3) 

Limnodrilus cervix variant 41.7 15.6 106.6 53.2 14.0 7.0 

(0.4) (2.1) (0.1) 

Limnodrilus clapardeianus 0.0 0.0 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 

(0.0) (0.1) * 

Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 1166.7 229.4 740.8 378.5 537.0 81.1 

(10.5) (14.9) (4.3) 

L. hoffmeisteri f. spiralis 9.3 6.2 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 

(0.1) (0.1) * 



Table 15 continued 



Transect 1 Transect 2 Transect 3 

(RM284) (RM278) (RM273.5) 

io. m" +SE no. m~^ +SE no. m~^ +SI 

(%) {%) (%) 





(0.0) 




Quistadrilus rcultisetosus 


629.7 
(5.7) 


164.8 


Tubifex tubifex 


9.2 
(0.1) 


9.2 


UIW/OCC^ 


5495.3 
(49.4) 


950.4 


TTTT.T/r-^^ 







Lir.nodrilus maur.eensis 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.8 15,5 

(0.0) (0.2) 

74.1 48.5 648.1 65.6 

(1-5) (5.2) 

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

(0.0) (0.0) 

078.7 925.4 3041.8 555.9 
(41.8) (24.4) 

UIW/CC" 935.3 221.8 675.9 330.3 1097.0 241.1 

(8.4) (13.6) (8.8) 

Total Oligochaeta 10302.4 1780.0 4847.8 2075.7 7315.2 994.1 

(92.6) (97.5) (58.6) 

Arthropoda 

Crustacea 

Amphipoda 

Talitridae 

Hyalella azteca 0.0 0.0 4.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 

(0.0) (0.1) (0.0) 

Insecta 

Ephemeroptera 

Baetidae 

Pseudocloeon sp. 4.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

* (0.0) (0.0) 

Odonata 

Anisoptera 

Gomphidae 

Gomphus sp. 0.0 0.0 4.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 

(0.0) (0.1) (0.0) 



Table 15 continued 



Transect 1 Transect 2 Transect 3 

(RM284) (RK273) (RM273.5) 

-2 -2 -7 

lo. m +SS no, in +SE no. m +S1 

(%) (%) (%) 



Trichoptera (unidentifiable) 4.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

* (0.0) (0.0) 

Diptera 

Chirononiidae (unidentifiable) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.7 4.7 

(0.0) (0.0) * 

Tanypodinae 

Procladiini 

Procladius sp. 37.1 21.4 46.2 25.4 5078.8 1225.8 

(0.3) (0.9) (40.7) 

Orth.ocladiinae 

Cricotopus bicinctus 

Cricotopus sylvestris 

Nanocladius sp. 

Parakief fer'iella sp. 

Chironominae 

Chironomini 

Chironomus sp. 4.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 9.2 9.2 

(0.0) (0.1) 

Dicrotendipes nervosus 18.4 12.2 0.0 0.0 4.7 4.7 

(0.2) (0.0) * 

Parachironomus nr. directus 4.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

* (0.0) (0.0) 

Parachironomus nr. monochromus 551.0 202.6 37.0 23.5 37.0 20.2 

(5.0) (0.7) (0.3) 

Polypedilum nr. scalaenuTU 4.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

* (0.0) (0.0) 



9.3 
(0.1) 


6.2 


0.0 
(0.0) 


0.0 


9.2 
(0.1) 


9.2 


9.3 
(0.1) 


6.2 


0.0 
(0.0) 


0.0 


0.0 
(0.0) 


0.0 


18.6 
(0.2) 


10.1 


4.7 

• -1) 


4.7 


0.0 
(0.0) 


0.0 


9.2 
(0.1) 


9.2 


0.0 
(0.0) 


0.0 


0.0 
(0.0) 


0.0 



Table 15 concluded 



Transect 1 


Transect 2 


Transect 3 


(RM284) 


(RM278) 


(RM273.5) 


no. m"^ +SE 


no. m~^ j;SE 


no. m~ +SE 


(%) 


(%) 


(%) 



Total Chironomidae 



667.0 246.9 
(6.0) 



87.9 43.0 5143.6 1213.1 
(1.8) (41.2) 



Mollusca 
Pelecypoda 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula fluminea 



23.1 
(0.2) 



4.7 
(0.1) 



9.3 
(0.1) 



Mean total- organisms 
Mean number of taxa 
Total taxa 

Mean sample diversity 
Mean sample evenness 



11127.0 2010.5 4972.8 2130.5 12477.4 883.6 

12.2 1.1 5.2 1.4 9.7 0.6 

33.0 19.0 21.0 

1.83 0.05 0.89 0.25 1.33 0.15 

0.75 0.03 0.45 0.12 0.59 0.06 



less than 0.1 percent composition 

unidentifiable immatures without capilliform chaetae 



= unidentifiable immatures with capilliform chaetae 



Table 16. Comparison of the taxonomic compositions of the 
1977, 1984, and 1986 aquatic macroinvertebrate 
collections from three sampling transects on the lower 
Des Plaines River. 



May 



Platyhelminthes 

Turbellaria 

Planariidae 

Duqesia sp. Girard 

Rhabdocoela 

Aschelminthes 

Nematoda 

Ectoprocta 

Plumatella repens Linnaeus 

Entoprocta 

Urnatella gracilis Leidy 

Annelida 

Oligochaeta 

Enchytraeidae (unidentifiable) 

Naididae (unidentifiable) 

Amphichaeta leydigi Tauber 

Bratislavia unidentata (Harman) 

Chaetoqaster cristallinus 
Vejdovsky 

Chaetoqaster diaphanus 
(Gruithuisen) 

Dero sp. Oken (unidentifiable) 

Dero diqitata (Muller) 

Dero furcata (Muller) 



Table 16 continued 



Taxa 


May 
1977-^ 


Jan 
1984^^ 


Jan 
1985 


Dero nivea (Aiyer) * 


a 


a 


P 


Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher 


a 


a 


P 


Nais sp. Muller (unidentifiable) 


P 


a 


P 


Nais barbata Muller 


P 


a 


P 


Nais communis Piguet 


a 


P 


P 


Nais pardalis Piguet 


a 


P 


P 


Nais variabilis Piguet 


a 


P 


P 


Ophidonais serpentina (Muller) 


a 


a 


P 


Paranais frici Hrabe 

( = Wapsa mobilis Liang) 


P 


P 


P 


Pristinella osborni (Walton) 


a 


a 


P 


Slavina appendiculata (d'Udekem) 


a 


P 


P 


Stephensoniana trivandrana 
(Aiyer) 


a 


a 


a 


Stylaria lacustris (Linnaeus) 


a 


a 


P 


Tubif icidae 








Aulodrilus pigueti Kowalewski 


P 


P 


P 


Ilyodrilus templetoni (Southern) 


P 


P 


P 


Limnodrilus spp. 


a 


a 


P 


Limnodrilus cervix Brinkhurst 


P 


P 


P 


Limnodrilus cervix variant 


a 


a 


P 


Limnodrilus claparedianus Ratzel 


a 


P 


P 


Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede 


P 


P 


P 


L. hoffmeisteri f. spiralis 


P 


a 


P 


Limnodrilus maumeensis 









Brinkhurst & Cook 



66 



Table 16 continued 



Taxa 


May 
1977"^ 


Jan 
1984"^ 


Jan 
1986 


Limnodrilus udekemianus Claparede 


P 


P 


a 


Quistadrilus multisetosus (Smith) 


P 


P 


P 


Tubifex tubifex (Muller) 


a 


P 


P 


Arthropoda 








Crustacea 








Amphipoda 








Talitridae 








Hyalella azteca (Saussure) 


a 


a 


P 


Insecta 




- 




Ephemeroptera 








Baetidae 








Callibaetis sp. Eaton 


a 


a 


a 


Pseudocloeon sp. Klapalek 


a 


a 


P 


Odonata 








Anisoptera 








Gomphidae 








Gomphus sp. Leach 


a 


a 


P 


Trichoptera (unidentifiable) 


a 


a 


P 


Diptera 








Chaoboridae 








Chaoborus punctipennis (Say) 


P 


a 


a 


Chironomidae 








Tanypodinae 








Coelotanypodini 








Coelotanypus sp. Kieffer 


a 


a 


a 



67 



Table 16 continued 



a 


a 


P 


a 


a 


P 


a 


a 


P 


a 


a 


P 



May Jan _ Jan 
Taxa 1977 1984 1986 



Procladiini 

Procladius sp. Skuse P , P P 

Tanypodini 

Tanypus sp. Meigen p a a 

Tanypus nr. punctipennis Meigen a a a 

Tanypus stellatus Coquillett a a a 
Orthocladiinae 

Cricotopus bicinctus Meigen 

Cricotopus sylvestris Fabricius 

Nanocladius sp. Kieffer 

Parakief feriella sp. Thienemann 
Chironominae 

Chironomini 

Chironomus sp. Meigen a a p 

Cryptochironomus sp. Kieffer a a a 

Dicrotendipes sp. Kieffer a a a 

Dicrotendipes neomodestus 

(Malloch) a p a 

Dicrotendipes nervosus (Staeger) a p p 

Glyptotendipes sp. Kieffer a a a 

Microchironomus sp. Pagast a a a 

Parachironomus nr. abortivus 

(Malloch) a p a 

Parachironomus nr. directus 

(Dendy & Sublette) a a p 

Parachironomus nr. monochromus 

(Wulp) a a p 



68 



Table 16 concluded 



Taxa 


May 
1977^ 


Jan 
1984^ 


Jan 
1986 


Polypedilum sp. Kieffer 


a 


a 


a 


Polypedilum nr. scalaenum 
(Schrank) 


a 


a 


P 


Mollusca 








Gastropoda 




< 




Ancylidae 








Ferrissia sp. Walker 


a 


P 


a 


Pelecypoda 








Corbiculidae 








Corbicula fluminea (Muller) 


a 


a 


P 


Sphaeriidae 








Musculium transversum (Say) 


a 


P 


a 


Total taxa 


18 


25 


40 


Oligochaeta taxa 


10 


17 


24 


Chironomidae taxa 


2 


4 


10 



p = taxon present in collections 
a = taxon absent from collections 

May 1977 collections by Nalco Environmental Sciences (1978) 

2 

Jan 1984 collections by Ecological Analysts (1984) 



69 



^ i 



t S 
s - 



!; 






or- CO 



o E u 
" 'S E 



ri 



2 .^ -g 



— J3 ^ O 

E 5 5 i S 



c ■ • R :::; 



O- vn O 



I ? i 

11^ 



III !^ 



Q4 O — — (. 






n >- o 






S E ^! o 



S 2 ^ 






rs 



o Y 



2 


1 
1 


1 



„ ii^ 



5 E I 
"o ° E 



fe 1 I 



s B ^ 



sr O. (M lO vT 



o M o- o 



.1 

a 

5 


1 


1 

1 
1 

1 


1 



2 8^22 

— 330 O 



I ? -1^ 



^ i i 



DES PLAINES RIVER 




The Des Plaines River study 
reach including river miles 273 
through 286 in Will and Grundy 
counties, Illinois. 



DES PLAINES RIVER 




The Des Plaines River study 
reach, river miles 273 - 286, 
indicating location and extent of 
aquatic vegetation beds, July- 
August 1985. For species list and 
cover estimates refer to Table 3. 






CP 


o 


x; 


ro 


J-l 




u 




XI 


03 T3 


Uh 


ro 


0) 


(1) 




H 


U 


W 








u 




o 


>i Q) T3 -P 


•D 


E 


(1) 




3 


0) 


4J 


u 


4J 




1T3 


CI 


W T! 


c 






c 







J^ 


ro 


-c 


u 


a> 




c 




> T3 


•H 


w 




(D 




Q) 


a 


w 


in 


4J 




^1 


CO 


ro 


w 


Q) 


en 


E 


Q) 


E 






C X! 




+J 




P -P 


m 


ro 


W 


w 


<D 






p 




Cl, 


i*-l 


Di ij 







D 


0) 


w 




< 


> 


fl) JJ 


1 


o 


Q 


c 


>, 




0) 






Q) 


4-> 


D T! 


j:: 


X 


^3 


c 


-P 


0) 


C 


ro 


<U 


n 




+j 





c 




i/i 




(0 


C 




i-i 







rH 




c 


-H 




-p 


o ^ 


W 


c 


H 


ro 


(1) 


Q) 4J 


P 




& 


(0 


(1) 


u 


u 


0^ 0) 


QJ 





0) 


a 


W M 


> 


u 




1/4 1/2 

Submersed vegetation 

Emersed vegetation 



Figure 5. Segment 3 of the Des Plaines River study reach with 
location and extent of submersed and emersed aquatic 
vegetation in July-August 1985 indicated. For 
species list and cover estimates refer to Table 4. 



DES PLAINES RIVER 
SEGMENT 4 

MILES 



Submersed vegetation 
Emersed vegetation 
Water boundary line 




Figure 6, Segment 4 of the Des Plaines River study reach with 
location and extent of submersed and emersed aquatic 
vegetation in July-August 1985 indicated. For 
species list and cover estimates refer to Table 4. 




4J V 

CT Q) 

u o a 

G) OJ H 

)-i • O 
>, Q) TJ -P 

■d e 0) 

p (1) -P 5-1 

+j <a CD 
in -a u M-i 

Q) C 

> Ti ■'^ w 

■HO) O 

pj w in 4J 

^-1 CO (0 

tn (D en e 

0) g H -rH 

C J2 -P 

•H a -p w 
(0 w w o 

P, tH tj' 1-1 

O D O 

in <> 

fl) 4-) I O 
D C >. U 

Q) 4-1 3 -O 

;:: X h) c 

4J 0) (0 

c 

U-l T3 -H 4-1 

o c tn 
in o .-I 
4J o 4J in 

Q) 4J +J -H 

e (0 o u 

tji u en a 

G) o 01 a 

w -H > in 



DES PLAINES RIVER 
SEGMENT 6 




Figure 8. Segment 6 of the Des Plaines River study reach with 
location and extent of submersed and emersed aquatic 
vegetation in July-August 1985 indicated. For 
species list and cover estimates refer to Table 4. 



81 




DES PLAINES RIVER 
SEGMENT 7 

MILES 



1/4 \'2 

Submersed vegetation 
Emersed vegetation 
Water boundary line 



Figure 9. Segment 7 of the Des Plaines River study reach with 
location and extent of submersed and emersed aquatic 
vegetation in July-August 1985 indicated. For 
species list and cover estimates refer to Table 4. 



DES PLAINES RIVER 
SEGMENT 8 




Figure 10. Segment 8 of the Des Plaines River study reach with 
location and extent of submersed and emersed aquatic 
vegetation in July-August 1985 indicated. For 
species list and cover estimates refer to Table 4. 



DES PLAINES RIVER 




Figure 11. Aquatic inacroinvertebrate 
sampling sites within the lov.-er Des Plaines 
River study area, July - August 19S5. 
• denotes locations v;here at least one 
sample was analyzed; o denotes locations 
where samples v.'ere obtained, but none 
analyzed. 



DES PLAiNES RIVER 




Figure 12. Aquatic macroinvertebrate 
sampling sites within the lower Des Plains 
River study area, July - August 1985. 
• denotes locations where at least one 
sample was analyzed; o denotes locations 
where samples were obtained, but none 
analyzed. 



DES PLAINES RIVER 




Figure 13. Aquatic macroinvertebrate 
sampling sites within the lower Des Plaine 
River study area, July - August 1985. 
• denotes locations where at least one 
sample was analyzed; o denotes locations 
where samples were obtained, but none 
analyzed. 



.^ 



DES PLAINES RIVER 

MILES 




Aquatic macromvertebrate 
sites within the lower Des Plaines 
:udy area, July - August 19S 

locations where at least one 
is analyzed; o denotes locations 
imples v/ere obtained, but none 
analyzed. 



DES PLAINES RIVER 




15, Benthic macroinvertebrate sampling 
transects in the lower Des Plaines 
River. 



APPENDIX A 

Locations of sites on the lower Des Plaines River study reach in 
Will County, Illinois, sampled for aquatic macroinvertebrates 
during July and August, 1985. Legal descriptions were obtained 
from U. S. Geological Survey quadrangle maps (Channahon, 111. and 
Elwood, 111. quads) of 1:24,000 scale, 7 . 5 ' -series (1954 ed. , 
1973PR) 



Site 

No. 



Site Location 



2: Des Plaines River (RM 277.0); 1.8 km SE Channahon; 250m from 
rt. bank (in DuPage flats); 3rd P.M.: T.34N, R.9E, SE/4,SW/4 
SW/4,SW/4, Sec. 16. U.T.M.: 
Channahon, 111. 



Zone 16, 3_„800m E, 45„p.820m N. 



Des Plaines River (RM 277.2); 1.7 km SE Channahon; 50m from rt. 
bank (in DuPage flats); 3rd P.M.: T.34N, R.9E, NE/4 ,NE/4 , SW/4 , 
SW/4, Sec. 16. U.T.M.: Zone 16 
Channahon, 111. 



3gg930m E, 



45o^l60m N, 

OD 



4: 



5: 



7: 



10 



Des Plaines River (RM 275.8); 3.0 km S Channahon; 400m from 
left bank (just upstrm Will Co. Forest Preserve Island) ; 3rd 
P.M.: T.34N, R.9E, NW/4 , SW/4 ,NW/4 , NE/4 , Sec. 29. U.T.M.: 



Zone 16 



3g^760m E, 45^ 



470m N. Channahon, 111. 



Des Plaines River (RM 275.8); 2.9 km S Channahon; 180m from 
rt. bank (just upstrm Will Co. Forest Preserve Island) ; 3rd 

P.M.: T.34N, R.9E, SF ' ' '4, NW/4, Sec. 29. U.T.M.: 

Zone 16, 3„_640m E, /...„, -.jO^u x, . Channahon, 111 



3g^640m E, 



84- 



Des Plaines River (RM 285.2); 5m from right bank; 3rd P.M.: 

T.35N, R.IOE, NW/4, NW/4, SE/4, SW/4, Sec. 20. U.T.M.: Zone 16, 

4^^050m E, 45^, 340m N. Elwood, 111. 
07 ' 94 

Des Plaines River (RM 285.1); 85m from left bank; 3rd P.M.: 
T.35N, R.IOE, SE/4, NE/4, SW/4, SW/4, Sec. 20. U.T.M.: Zone 16, 



4Qg920m E, 



45^, 250m N 
94 



Elwood, 111. 



Des Plaines River (RM 284.6); 10m from left bank, near Olin 
Chem. Corp. discharge, at edge of vegetation bed; 3rd P.M.: 
T.35N, R.IOE, SE/4, SW/4, NE/4, NE/4, Sec. 30. U.T.M.: Zone 16, 



4 350m E, 45 650m N. 



Elwood, 111. 



Des Plaines River (RM 284 
discharge channel; depth: 
SW/4, NE/4, NE/4, Sec. 30. 
45 880ra N. Elwood, 111. 



6); 

3m 



10m from right bank; In ComEd 
3rd P.M.: T.3 5N, R.IOE, NW/4 



U.T.M. : Zone 16, 



4^^100m E 
06 



12: Des Plaines River (RM 279.8); 5.4 km ENE Channahon; 30m from 

left bank (in side channel behind Treat Is.); 3rd P.M.: 

T.34N, R.9E, N/2 , NW/4 , SW/4 , SE/4 , Sec. 11. U.T.M. : Zone 16, 

4^^820m E, 45„^980m N. Channahon, 111. 
02 o / 



89 



Appendix A (continued) 

13: Des Plaines River (RM 279.8); 5.4 km ENE Channahon; 15m from 
left bank (in side channel behind Treat Is.); 3rd P.M.: 
T.34N, R.9E, N/2 , NW/4 , SW/4 , SE/4 , Sec. 11. U.T.M.: Zone 16, 
4-_840m E, 45„_970m N. Channahon, 111. 

U Z o / 

15: Des Plaines River (RM 279.8); 5.4 km ENE Channahon; 32m from 
left bank (in side channel behind Treat Is.); 3rd P.M.: 
T.34N, R.9E, N/2 , NW/4 , SW/4 , SE/4 , Sec. 11. U.T.M.: Zone 16, 
4^_790m E, 45__970m N. Channahon, 111. 

02 o / 

16: Des Plaines River (RM 275.8); 2.8 km S Channahon; 80m from 

left bank (behind Will Co. Forest Preserve Island); 3rd P.M.: 
T.34N, R.9E, SE/4 , SE/4 , NE/4 , NW/4 , Sec. 29. U.T.M.: Zone 16, 
3^370m E, 45g2940m N. Channahon, 111. 

17: Grant Creek/Grant Creek Cut-off, 5 . 1 km S Channahon; 400m up- 
stream Grant Creek Marina bridge, (adjacent to Des Plaines 
River Des Plaines River (RM 274.6)); 3rd P.M.: T.34N, R.9E, 
S/2, SE/4, SW/4, NW/4, Sec. 32. U.T.M. : Zone 16, 3 350m E, 
45g^900m N. Channahon, 111. 

20: Des Plaines River (RM 285.5); 200m from left bank, 420m 

dwnstrm Brandon Rd. bridge; 3rd P.M.: T.35N, R.IOE, SE/4, 
SW/4, NW/4, SE/4, Sec. 20. U.T.M. : Zone 16, 4 900m 
E, 45g^490m N. Elwood, 111. 

21: Des Plaines River (RM 285.5); 5m from rt. bank, 380m dwnstirm 
Brandon Rd. bridge; 3rd P.M.: T .35N, R.IOE, SW/4 ,NE/4 , SW/4 , 
SE/4, Sec. 20. U.T.M.: Zone 16, 4 300m E, 45Q.370m N. 
Elwood, 111. ^' ^^ 

22: Grant Creek/Grant Creek cutoff; 5.1km S Channahon, 4 00m upstrm 
of Grant Creek Marina bridge (adjacent to RM 274.6); 3rd P.M.: 
T.34N, R.9E, S/2 , SE/4 , SW/4 , NW/4 , Sec. 32. U.T.M.: Zone 16, 
3g^350m E, 45g 900m N. Channahon, 111. 

23: Des Plaines River (RM 285.5); 380m downstrm of Brandon Rd 

bridge; 3rd P.M. : T.35N, R.IOE, SW/4 ,NE/4 , SW/4 , SE/4 , Sec. 20. 
U.T.M.: Zone 16, 407300m E, 4594370m N. 

24: Grant Creek/Grant Creek cutoff; 5.1km S Channahon, 4 00m upstrm 
of Grant Creek Marina bridge (adjacent to RM 274.6); 3rd P.M.: 
T.34N, R.9E, S/2 , SE/4 , SW/4 , NW/4 , Sec. 32. U.T.M.: Zone 16, 
3Q_350m E, 45_,900m N. Channahon, 111. 

25: Des Plaines River (RM 277.2); 1.7 km SE Channahon; in DuPage 
flats; 3rd P.M.: T.34N, R.9E, NE/4 ,NE/4 , SW/4 , SW/4 , Sec. 16. 
U.T.M.: Zone 16, 3-o930m E, 45_^160m N. Channahon, 111. 



90 



APPENDIX B. Aquatic macroinvertebrates collected by petite ponar 
from established transects in the lower Des Plaines 
River, Will and Grundy counties, Illinois, 
16 January 1986. 



91 



Table Bl. Aquatic macroinvertebrates (no. 

dredge from lower Des Plaines River Site IM (river mile 284) 
16 January 1986. 



Reolicate 



(+ SE) 



Aschelninthes 

Nematoda 42 125 55.7 (36.7) 

Annelida 

Oligochaeta 

Enchytraeidae (unidentifiable) 
Naididae (unidentifiable) 

Bratislavia unidenta 

Dero sp. 

Dero furcata 

Dero nivea 

Nais sp. 

Nais communis 

Nais pardalis 

Nais variabilis 

Ophidonais serpentina 

Paranais frici 

Slavina appendiculata 

Stylaria lacustris 
Tubif icidae 

Aulodrilus pigueti 

Ilyodrilus templetoni 

Limnodrilus sp. 

Limnodrilus cervix 

Limnodrilus cervix variant 

Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 

L. hof fmeisteri f. spiralis 

Quistadrilus multisetosus 

UIW/OCC 

UIW/CC 

Total Oligochaeta 

Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Ephemeroptera 
Baetidae 

Psuedocloeon sp. 42 14.0 (14.0) 



42 














14.0 




(14.0) 


375 




583 




167 




375.0 




(120.1) 


42 














14.0 




(14.0) 












250 




83.3 




(83.3) 







42 




83 




41.7 




(24.0) 


125 




250 




167 




180.7 




(36.7) 


42 














14.0 




(14.0) 


292 














97.3 




(97.3) 







83 









27.7 




(27.7) 


292 














97.3 




(97.3) 


42 














14.0 




(14.0) 







42 




83 




41.7 




(24.0) 


83 














27.7 




(27.7) 


42 














14.0 




(14.0) 


292 


4 


,500 




917 


1 


,903.0 


(1 


,311.0) 







167 




167 




111.3 




(55.7) 


42 




167 









69.7 




(50.2) 


125 




167 




83 




125.0 




(24.2) 












83 




27.7 




(27.7) 


2,042 


1 


,500 


1, 


,667 


1 


,736.3 




(160.3) 


42 














14.0 




(14.0) 


167 


1 


,000 


1 


,167 




778.0 




(309.3) 


3,417 


8 


,333 


8 


,333 


6 


,694.3 


(1 


,638.7) 


417 


2 


,250 


1, 


,000 


1 


,222.3 




(540.7) 


7,921 


19 


,084 


14 


,167 


13 


,724.0 


(3 


,230.1) 



Table Bl concluded. 



(i SE) 



Diptera 

Chirono:nidae 
Tanypodinae 
Procladiini 
Procladius sp. 
Orthocladiinae 
Cricotopus bicinctus 
Cricotopus svlvestris 
Nanocladius sp. 



(55.7) 



42 








14.0 


(14.0) 





42 





14.0 


(14.0) 


42 


42 





28.0 


(14.0) 



Chironommae 
Chironomini 
Chironomus sp. 

Parachiror.omus nr 

Polypedilum nr. scalaenum 



r.onochromus 167 




42 

1,417 







333 

42 



14.0 (14.0) 

639.0 (391.9) 

14.0 (14.0) 



Total Chironomidae 



77£ 



(269.6) 



Mollusca 
Pelecypoda 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula fluininea 



(27.7) 



Total organisms 
Total taxa 
Sample diversity 
Sancle evenness 



1,214 21,002 

16 16 

1.83 1.72 

0.66 0.62 



,4,667 


14,627.7 


(3,691.6) 


12 


14.7 


(1.3) 


1.84 


1.80 


(0.04) 


0.74 


0.67 


(0.04) 



= unidentifiable immatures without capilliform chaetae 
= unidentifiable immatures with capilliform chaetae 
= total of 26 taxa from 3 replicates 



Table B2 . Aquatic macroinvertebrates (no. m~ ) collected by petite ponar 
dredge from lower Des Plaines River Site IR (river mile 284), 
16 January 1986. 



Reolicate 



(+ SE) 



Aschelminthes 

Nematoda 250 292 167 236.3 (36.7) 

Annelida 

Oligochaeta 

Naididae (unidentifiable) 
Dero furcata 
Dero nivea 
Nais sp. 
Nais barbata 
Nais communis 
Ophidonais serpentina 
Paranais frici 
Pristinella osborni 

Tubif icidae 

Aulodrilus pigueti 
Limnodrilus sp. 
Liminodrilus cervix 
Limnodrilus cervix variant 
Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 
Quistadj^ilus multisetosus 
UIW/OCC 
UIW/CC 

Total Oligochaeta 

Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Trichoptera (unidentifiable) 42 14.0 (14.0) 

Diptera 

Chironomidae 
Tanypodinae 
Procladiini 

Procladius sp. 125 42 55.7 (63.6) 

Orthocladiinae 
CricotoDUs bicinctus 





375 




500 


333 




402.7 


(50.2) 












42 




14.0 


(14.0) 




83 




667 


42 




264.0 


(201.8) 




167 












55.7 


(55.7) 




42 




83 







41.7 


(24.0) 




83 












27.7 


(27.7) 




42 







42 




28.0 


(14.0) 









167 







55.7 


(55.7) 









167 


42 




69.7 


(50.2) 


1 


,250 




167 


42 




486.3 


(383.5) 




42 




250 







97.3 


(77.3) 




458 




83 







180.3 


(140.9) 




83 







42 




41.7 


(24.0) 




583 


2 


,167 


750 


1 


,166.6 


(502.5) 


1 


,250 


1 


,083 


583 




972.0 


(200.4) 


5 


,958 


9 


,750 


2,750 


6 


,152.7 


(2,023.1) 




542 


1 


,667 


500 




903.0 


(382.2) 


.0 


,958 


16 


,751 


5,168 


10 


,959.0 


(3,343.7) 



Nanocladius sp. 
Parakiefferiella 






42 





14.0 


(14.0) 





83 





27.7 


(27.7) 





83 





27.7 


(27.7) 



Table B2 concluded. 



Reolicate 



(± SE) 



Chironominae 
Chironomini 

Dicrotendipes nervosus 
Parachironomus nr. directus 
Parachironoir.us nr. inonochronus 1,042 

Total Chironomidae 1,292 1,875 203 1,125.0 (488.4) 



83 


83 





55.3 


(27.7) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 


142 


1,542 


208 


930.7 


(389.1) 



Total organisir.3 
Total taxa 
Sample diversity 
Samole evenness 



,2,501 


13,960 


5,543 


12,334.7 


(3,874.0) 


13 


16 


9 


12.7 


(2.0) 


2.0 


1.99 


1.59 


1.86 


(0.13) 


0.78 


0.72 


0.72 


0.74 


(0.02) 



b 



= unidentif iab" '- -----^.^ '"'-nut capilliform chaetae 

= unidentifia. ■:apillif orm chaetae 

= total of 20 -c;.^;d i^^r.; cnree XL^licates 



Table B3 . Aquatic nacroinvertebrates (no. 

dredge from Des Plaines River Site IL (river laile 284) , 16 January 
1986. 



Replicate 



(+ SE) 



Aschelminthes 

Nematoda 208 42 83.3 (63.5) 

Annelida 

Oligochaeta 

Naididae (unidentifiable) 

Dero diqitata 

Dero nivea 

Nais pardalis 

Paranais frici 
Tubif icidae 

Aulodrilus pigueti 

Ilyodrilus tenpletoni 

Liinnodrilus sp. 

Limnodrilus cervix 

Limnodrilus cervix variant 

Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 

L. hof fiT^eisteri f . spiralis 

Quistadrilus nultisetosus 

Tub if ex tub if ex 

UIW/OCC 

UIW/CC 

Total Oligochaeta 

Arthrcpoda 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae 
Orthocladiinae 

Cricotopus sylvestris 42 14.0 (14.0) 

Chironominae 
Chironomini 
Parachironomus nr. monochromus 167 83 83.3 (48.2) 

Total Chirononidae 42 167 83 97.3 (36.8) 



250 


42 


167 


153.0 


(60.5) 


125 


83 


417 


208.3 


(105.0) 


208 








69.3 


(69.3) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 








42 


14.0 


(14.0) 


167 


875 


292 


444.7 


(218.2) 


42 


292 


42 


125,3 


(83.3) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 


42 





42 


28.0 


(14.0) 





125 


42 


55.7 


(36.7) 


542 


917 


333 


597.3 


(170.8) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 


167 


125 


125 


139.0 


(14.0) 





83 





27.7 


(27.7) 


,708 


3,417 


5,792 


3,639.0 


(1,184.2) 


125 


917 


1,000 


680.7 


(278.9) 


,502 


6,876 


8,294 


6,224.0 


(1,421.2) 



Table B3 concluded. 



Total organisms 
Total taxa 
Sample diversity 
Sample evenness 



Renlicate 



Mean (+ SE) 



Mollusca 
Pelecypoda 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula fluminea 42 14.0 (14.0) 



,752 


7,085 


8,419 


6,418.7 


(1,387.8) 


10 


9 


9 


9.3 


(O-S)"- 


1.94 


1.71 


1.86 


1.84 


(0.06) 


0.84 


0.78 


0.85 


0.82 


(0.02) 



, = unidentifiable immatures without capilliform chaetae 
= unidentifiable immatures with capilliform chaetae 
= total of 14 taxa from 3 replicates 



Table B4 . Aquatic macroinvertebrates (no. m ) collected by petite ponar 
dredge from lower Des Plaines River Site 2M (river mile 278.0), 
16 January 1986. 



Reolicate 



(+ SE) 



Annelida 

Oligochaeta 
Naididae 

Nais barbata 
Nais variabilis 
Ophidonais serpentina 

Tubif icidae 

Aulodrilus pigueti 
Ilyodrilus templetoni 
Limnodrilus sp. 
Limnodrilus cervix 
Limnodrilus cervix variant 
Limnodrilus claparedianus 
Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 
L. hof fmeisteri f. spiralis 
Quistad:^ilus multisetosus 
UIW/OCC 
UIW/CC 






42 





14.0 


(14.0) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 





42 





14.0 


(14.0) 


42 


42 


42 


42.0 


(0.0) 


42 





83 


41.7 


(24.0) 





42 





14.0 


(14.0) 


167 


42 


83 


97.3 


(36.8) 





42 


292 


111.3 


(91.1) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 


583 


542 


625 


583.0 


(24.0) 





42 





14.0 


(14.0) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 


458 


1,167 


833 


819.3 


(204.8) 


125 


375 


167 


222.3 


(77.3) 



:otal Oligochaeta 



1,543 2,378 2,125 2,015.3 (247.2) 



Total organisms 
Total taxa 
Sample diversity 
Sample evenness 



1,543 2,378 2,125 

7 5 4 

1.29 0.93 1.01 

0.66 0.58 0.73 



015.3 


(247.2) 


5.3 


(0.9) 


1.08 


(0.11) 


0.66 


(0.04) 



= unidentifiable immatures without capilliform chaetae 
= unidentifiable imjnatures with capilliform chaetae 



= total of 9 taxa, from 3 replicates 



Table B5. Aquatic nacroinvertebrates (no. m ) collected by petite ponar 
dredge from lower Des Plaines River Site 2R (river mile 278.0), 
16 January 1986. 



Reolicate 



(+ SE) 



Aschelminthes 

Nematoda 
Annelida 

Oligochaeta 

Naididae (unidentifiable) 
Dero nivea 
Nais barbata 
Paranais frici 
Haemonais waldvoqeli 

Tubif icidae 

Aulodrilus pigueti 
Ilyodrilus temoletoni 
Limnodrilus sp. 
Limnodrilus cervix 
Limnodrilus cervix variant 
Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 
Quistadrilus multisetosus 



UIW/OCC 
UIW/CC 

Total Oligochaeta 



(69.3) 





125 


1,167 




83 


458.3 


(354.5) 




83 










27.7 


(27.7) 




42 










14.0 


(14.0) 


1, 


,083 


2,250 




250 


1,194.3 


(580.0) 




42 










14.0 


(14.0) 




792 


1,667 




83 


847.3 


(458.1) 




667 


157 




667 


500.3 


(166.7) 







83 




167 
83 


83.3 
111.0 
208.3 


(48.2) 

(73.5) 

(146.3) 




667 


583 






1,639.0 


(1,014.3) 




208 


417 







208.3 


(120.4) 


2 


,917 


6,000 


7 


,333 


5,416.7 


(1,307.7) 




833 


2,833 


1 


,750 


1,805.3 


(578.0) 


7 


,501 


15,500 


14 


,583 


12,528.0 


(2,527.4) 



Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Odonata 
Anisoptera 
Gomphidae 
Gomphus sp. 



(14.0) 



Diptera 
Chironomidae 
Tanypodinae 
Procladiini 
Procladius sp. 



(36.7) 



Table B5 concluded. 



Reolicate 



(i SS) 



Chirononiinae 
Chironomini 

Parachirono::ius nr 

Total Chirononidae 



monochronus 



42 


208 


83 


111.0 


(49.9) 


250 


333 


166 


249.7 


(83.5) 



Mollusca 
Pelecypoda 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula fluminea 



(14.0) 



Total organisms 
Total taxa 
Sample diversity 
Sample evenness 



7,793 16,041 

12 9 

1.92 1.71 

0.77 0.78 



1,791 12,875.0 (2,566.5) 

8 9.7 (1.2)' 

1.13 1.59 (0.24) 

0.54 0.7 (0.03) 



^ = unidentifiable immatures without capilliform chaetae 
^ = unidentifiable immatures with capilliform chaetae 



= total of 14 taxa from 3 replicates 



Aquatic macroinvertebrates (no. m ) collected by petite ponar 
dredge from lower Des Plaines River Site 2L (river mile 278.0), 
16 January 1986. 



RsDlicatj 



(+ SE) 



Arthropoda 
Crustacea 
Amphipoda 
Talitridae 
Hvalella azteca 



(14.0) 



Insecta 
Diptera 
Chironomidae 
Orthocladiinae 



Nanocladius sp. 
Total Chironomidae 












42 
42 






14.0 
14.0 


(14.0) 
(14.0) 


Total organisms 
Total taxa 
Sample diversity 
Sample evenness 








rep 


42 
1 



licates 


42 
1 




28.0 

0.7 






(14.0) 
(0.3)^ 
(0.0) 
(0.0) 


^ = total 


of 


2 taxa 


from 3 









Table B7 . Aquatic maroinvertebrates (no. m ) collected by petite ponar dredge 
from lower Des Plaines River Site 3M (river mile 273.5), 16 January 
1986. 









Reolicate 






Mean 






Taxa 


A 




B 


c 


(+ SE) 


Aschelminthes 




















Nematoda 









42 







14.0 




(14.0) 


Annelida 




















Oligochaeta 




















Naididae (unidentifiable) 




417 




42 







153.0 




(132.6) 


Dero nivea 












83 




27.7 




(27.7) 


Nais communis 









208 







69.3 




(69.3) 


Oohidonais serpentina 












42 




14.0 




(14.0) 


Paranais frici 


1, 


,667 


1 


,417 


750 


1, 


,278.0 




(273.7) 


Tubificidae 




















Aulodrilus pigueti 




500 




750 


583 




611.0 




(73.5) 


Ilyodrilus templetoni 




333 




167 







166.7 




(96.1) 


Limnodrilus sp. 









42 







14.0 




(14.0) 


Limnodrilus cervix 




83 




292 


83 




152.7 




(69.7) 


Limnodrilus cervix variant 









42 







14.0 




(14.0) 


Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 




750 




833 


875 




819.3 




(36.7) 


Limnodrilus maumeensis 









83 


125 




69.3 




(36.7) 


Quistadrilus multisetosus 




500 




667 


542 




569.7 




(50.2) 


UIW/OCC^ 
UIW/CC 


6 


,500 


5 


,042 2 


,958 


4 


,833.3 


(1 


,027.8) 


2 


,833 


1 


,458 


625 


1 


,638.7 




(643.8) 


Total Oligochaeta 


13 


,583 


11 


,043 6 


,666 


10 


,430.7 


(2 


,020.1) 



Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae 
Tanypodinae 
Procladiini 
Procladius sp. 



1, 000 



(399.9) 



Chironominae 
Chironomini 
Dicrotendipes nervosus 

Parachironomus nr. monochromus 









42 


14.0 


(14.0) 


3 


83 


167 


111.0 


(28.0) 



Total Chironomidae 



1,751 1,028.0 



(434.2) 



Table B7 concluded. 



Total organisms 
Total taxa 
Sample diversity 
Sample evenness 



ReDlicate 



Mean (+ SE) 



Mollusca 
Pelecypoda 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula f luminea 42 14.0 (14.0) 



13,833 


12,168 


8,459 


11,486.7 


(1,588.3) 


8 


11 


12 


10.3 


(1.2) 


1.68 


2.02 


1.93 


1.88 


(0.10) 


0.81 


0.84 


0.78 


0.81 


(0.02) 



= unidentifiable ' ;- illiform chaetae 

^ = total of 14 ta;: ... _ . s 



Table B8 . Aquatic macroinvertebrates (no. m ) collected by petite ponar dredge 
frora lower Des Plaines River Site 3R (river mile 273.5), 16 January 
1986. 



Renlicate 



(+ SS) 



42 


42 


42 


42.0 


(0.0) 








42 


14.0 


(14.0) 





83 





27.7 


(27.7) 





42 





14.0 


(14.0) 


83 





83 


55.3 


(27.7) 


375 


458 


453 


430.3 


(27.7) 


417 


83 


500 


333.3 


(127.4) 


125 


42 


83 


83.3 


(24.0) 


250 


42 


292 


194.7 


(77.3) 


42 


42 





28.0 


(14.0) 


417 


583 


458 


486.0 


(49.9) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 


833 


458 


1,042 


777.7 


(170.8) 


1,750 


2,542 


2,875 


2,389.0 


(333.6) 


458 


542 


1,000 


666.7 


(163.4) 



Annelida 

Oligochaeta 

Naididae (unidentifiable) 
Dero sp. 
Dero diqitata 
Dero nivea 
Paranais frici 

Tubif icidae 

Aulodrilus piqueti 
Ilyodrilus templetoni 
Limnodrilus sp. 
Limnodrilus cervix 
Limnodrilus cervix variant 
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 
L. hof fmeisteri f. spiralis 
Limnodrilus maumeensis 
Quistadrilus multisetosus 

UIW/OCC^ 
UIW/CC 

Total Oligochaeta 4,876 4,959 6,875 5,570.0 (652.9) 

Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae (unidentifiable) 42 14.0 (14.0) 
Tanypodinae 
Procladiini 
Procladius sp. 3,667 9,458 6,833 6,652.7 (1,674.1) 

Total Chironomidae 3,709 9,458 6,833 6,666.7 (1,661.7) 

Total organisms 8,585 14,417 13,708 12,236.7 (1,837.3) 

Total taxa 8 8 8 8 (0.0) 

Sample diversity 1.36 0.69 1.10 1.05 (0.20) 

Sample evenness 0.65 0.33 0.53 0.50 (0.09) 

^ = unidentifiable immatures without capilliform chaetae 

= unidentifiable immatures with capilliform chaetae 
^ = total of 10 taxa from 3 replicates 

104 



Table B9 . Aquatic macroinvertebrates (no. m ) collected by petite ponar 
dredge from lower Des Plaines River Site 3L (river mile 273.5), 
16 January 1986. 



ReDlicate 



(+ SE) 



Aschelminthes 
Nematoda 



(14.0) 



Annelida 

Oligochaeta 

Naididae (unidentifiable) 
Amphichaeta leydigi 
Dero digitata 
Dero nivea 
Nais cominunis 
Nais variabilis 
Paranais frici 



Tubificidae 

Aulodrilus pigueti 
Ilyodrilus templetoni 
Limnodrilus sp. 
Limnodrilus cervix 
Limnodrilus claparedianus 
Limnodrilus hof fmeisteri 
Quistadrilus multisetosus 



UIW/OCC 
UIW/CC 



42 


83 


125 


83.3 


(24.0) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 








167 


55.7 


(55.7) 


83 








27.7 


(27.7) 


42 








14.0 


(14.0) 


83 


125 





69.3 


(36.7) 


125 


417 


125 


222.3 


(97.3) 


1,12 5 


1 , OT 7 




1,028.0 


(543.4) 


2 5u 






458.3 


(229.7) 


42 






41.7 


(24.0) 


167 


83 


125 


125.0 


(24.2) 








42 


14.0 


(14.0) 


458 


167 


292 


305.7 


(84.3) 


750 


458 


583 


597.0 


(84.6) 


2,292 


1,375 


2,042 


1,903.0 


(273.7) 


792 


1,083 


1,083 


986.0 


(97.0) 



Total Oligochaeta 



5,916 5,626 



(193.1) 



Arthropoda 
Insecta 
Diptera 

Chironomidae 
Tanypodinae 
Procladiini 
Procladius sp. 

Orthocladiinae 
CricotoDus bicinctus 



10,042 7,500 5,500 7,680.7 



(1,314.3) 
(27.7) 



Table B9 concluded 



Renlicate 



(+ SE) 



Chironominae 
Chironomini 
Chironomus sp. 83 27.7 (27.7) 

Total Chironomidae 10,042 7,666 5,500 7,736.3 (1,311.6) 

Mollusca 
Pelecypoda 
Corbiculidae 

Corbicula fluminea 42 14.0 (14.0) 

Total organisms 16,335 13,582 11,210 13,709.0 (1,480.8) 

Total taxa 11 10 11 10.7 (0.3)' 

Sample diversity 0.97 1.12 1.14 1.08 (0.05) 

Sample evenness 0.41 0.49 0.48 0.46 (0.03) 



. = unidentifiable immatures without capilliform chaetae 
= unidentifiable immatures with capilliform chaetae 
= total of 17 taxa from 3 replicates 



APPENDIX C. Ancillary measurements obtained from the lower Des 
Plaines River transects, Will and Grundy counties, 
Illinois, 16 January 1986. 



107 



(M ^ 



Y ^ 



-n <u 



> c 



1 ^ 



-' 3 
O C 






108 



s t 









(0 



o <u 
I- 1. 



il u 



2 'Z -E i^ 

4-. 4J (0 — 
d) (U U) U) 



i « 

S « 

o .t^ i^ "E 



._ D ^ 









11 O 



109 



i 2r 



o in 

in o 






,^ ^ "S 



— ■ ra 



1 ^ 



110 






«l (0 



L. O 

> § 



il 

O V 



c o 

'5 'ij 

I I 

° s 



i 2: 

— < 1. 

11 



— .TJ 

— . ra — 



"E .t^ 



110